Thursday, December 26, 2019
In 1962, anthropologist Charles O. Frake defined cultural ecology as the study of the role of culture as a dynamic component of any ecosystem and thats still a fairly accurate definition. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface of the earth has been transformed by human development. Cultural ecology argues that we humans were inextricably embedded in earth surface processes long before the invention of bulldozers and dynamite. Key Takeaways: Cultural Ecology American anthropologist Julian Steward coined the term cultural ecology in the 1950s.Ã Cultural ecology explains that humans are part of their environment and both affect and are affected by the other.Ã Modern cultural ecology pulls in elements of historical and political ecology as well as rational choice theory, post-modernism, and cultural materialism. Human impacts and cultural landscape are two contradictory concepts that may help to explain the past and modern flavors of cultural ecology. In the 1970s, concern over human impacts on the environment arose: the roots of the environmental movement. But, that isnt cultural ecology, because it situates humans outside of the environment. Humans are part of the environment, not an outside force making impacts on it. Discussing cultural landscapesÃ¢â¬âpeople within their environmentÃ¢â¬âattempts to address the world as a bio-culturally collaborative product. Environmental Social Science Cultural ecology is part of a suite of environmental social science theories that provide anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers, historians, and other scholars a way to think about why it is people do what they do, to structure research and ask good questions of the data. In addition, cultural ecology is part of a theoretical division of the whole study of human ecology, broken into two parts: human biological ecology (how people adapt through biological means) and human cultural ecology (how people adapt through cultural means). Looked at as the study of the interaction between living things and their environment, cultural ecology involves human perceptions of the environment as well as the sometimes unperceived impacts of us on the environment and the environment on us. Cultural ecology is all about humansÃ¢â¬âwhat we are and what we do, in the context of being another animal on the planet. Adaptation and Survival One part of cultural ecology with immediate impact is the study of adaptation, how people deal with, affect and are affected by their changing environment. That is vital to our survival on the planetÃ because it offers understanding and possible solutions to important contemporary problems, like deforestation, loss of species, food scarcity, and soil loss. Learning about how adaptation worked in the past can teach us today as we grapple with the effects of global warming. Human ecologists study how and why cultures do what they do to solve their subsistence problems, how people understand their environment and how they share that knowledge. A side benefit is that cultural ecologists pay attention to and learn from traditional and local knowledge about how we really are part of the environment, whether we pay attention or not. Them and Us The development of cultural ecology as a theory has its start with a scholarly grappling with understanding cultural evolution (now called unilinear cultural evolution and abbreviated as UCE). Western scholars had discovered there were societies on the planet who were less advanced than elite white male scientific societies: how did that come about? UCE, developed in the late 19th century, argued that all cultures, given enough time, went through a linear progression: savagery (loosely defined as hunters and gatherers), barbarism (pastoralists/early farmers), and civilization (identified as a set of characteristics of civilizations such as writing and calendars and metallurgy). As more archaeological research was accomplished, and better dating techniques were developed, it became clear that developing ancient civilizations did not follow neat or regular rules. Some cultures moved back and forth between agricultural and hunting and gathering or, quite commonly, did both at once. Preliterate societies did build calendars of sortsÃ¢â¬âStonehenge is the best known but not the oldest by a long wayÃ¢â¬âand some societies such as the Inca developed state-level complexity without writing as we know it. Scholars came to realize that cultural evolution was, in fact, multi-linear, that societies develop and change in many different ways. History of Cultural Ecology That first recognition of the multi-linearity of cultural change led to the first major theory of the interaction between people and their environment: environmental determinism. Environmental determinism said it must be that the local environments in which people live forceÃ them to select methods of food production and societal structures. The problem with that is that environments change constantly, and people make choices on how to adapt based on a wide range of successful and unsuccessful intersections with the environment. Cultural ecology arose primarily through the work of anthropologist Julian Steward, whose work in the American southwest led him to combine four approaches: an explanation of culture in terms of the environment in which it existed; the relationship of culture and environment as an ongoing process; a consideration of small-scale environments, rather than culture-area-sized regions; and the connection of ecology and multi-linear cultural evolution. Steward coined cultural ecology as a term in 1955, to express that (1) cultures in similar environments may have similar adaptations, (2) all adaptations are short-lived and constantly adjust to local conditions, and (3) changes can either elaborate on earlier cultures or result in entirely new ones. Modern Cultural Ecology Modern forms of cultural ecology pull in elements of tested and accepted theories (and some rejected) in the decades between the 1950s and today, including: historical ecology (which discusses the impact of individual interactions of small-scale societies);political ecology (which includes the effects of power relations and conflicts on the household to global scale);rational choice theory (which says that people make decisions about how to achieve their goals);post-modernism (all theories are equally valid and the truth is not readily discernible to subjective western scholars); andcultural materialism (humans respond to practical problems by developing adaptive technologies). All of those things have found their way into modern cultural ecology. In the end, cultural ecology is a way to look at things; a way to form hypotheses about understanding the broad range of human behaviors; a research strategy; and even a way to make sense of our lives. Think about this: much of the political debate about climate change of the early 2000s centered around whether or not it was human-created. That is an observation of how people still attempt to put humans outside our environment, something cultural ecology teaches us cannot be done. Sources Berry, J. W. A Cultural Ecology of Social Behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Ed. Berkowitz, Leonard. Vol. 12: Academic Press, 1979. 177Ã¢â¬â206. Print.Frake, Charles O. Cultural Ecology American Anthropologist 64.1 (1962): 53Ã¢â¬â59. Print.and Ethnography.Head, Lesley. Cultural Ecology: AdaptationÃ¢â¬âRetrofitting a Concept? Progress in Human Geography 34.2 (2010): 234-42. Print.Cultural Ecology: The Problematic Human and Terms of Engagement. Progress in Human Geography 31.6 (2007): 837Ã¢â¬â46. Print.Head, Lesley, and Jennifer Atchison. Cultural Ecology: Emerging Human-Plant Geographies. Progress in Human GeographyÃ (2008). Print.Sutton, Mark Q, and E.N. Anderson. Introduction to Cultural Ecology. Second Edition ed. Lanham, Maryland: Altamira Press, 2013. Print.
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Scholasticism is the theological and philosophical movement that tried to use the classical Greco-Roman philosophy to understand the religious revelation of Christianity. It was the dominant theological and philosophical thought of medieval times, after the patristic thinking of late antiquity. It was based on the coordination between faith and reason, with the established assumption that reason was subordinate to faith. It dominated in the cathedral schools and general studies leading to medieval European universities. However, its origins are heterogeneous in nature as it adapted not only Greco-Latin philosophical thinking, but also Arab and Jewish. Scholasticism can also be defined as a method of intellectual work where allÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In this period its highest representatives are John Duns Scotus, called the Ã¢â¬Å"Subtle DoctorÃ¢â¬ , and William of Ockham. Scotus arrives at the idea that God and the Infinite, are notions reached via metaphysics; it was understood by the Franciscans in the strict Aristotelian sense as the science of being as being. Eventually, this led to the establishment of the autonomy of philosophy and theology. He made it clear that each of these disciplines has its own method and object; although Scotus assumed that theology presupposes a metaphysical course. It was William of Ockham however, which further lead this development on the metaphysical. His famous principle of economy, called Ockhams Razor, postulated that it was necessary to remove anything that was not obvious and given in sensible intuition: Dont multiply entities beyond necessity.Ã¢â¬  In the act of knowing we prioritize empirical experience or intuitive knowledge which is an immediate knowledge of reality, because if everything that exists is singular and concrete, then they are not abstract entities separate from things or inherent to them. Universals are only names and exist only in the soul. OckhamÃ¢â¬â¢s approach, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"nominalismÃ¢â¬ , opposes the Aristotelian-scholastic tradition, which was fundamentally realistic. Universal concepts, for Ockham, are nothing more than mental processes by whichShow MoreRelatedThe Main Controversies of Medieval Thought in the 12th and 13th Centuries1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesphilosophical debate revolved around these and to a lesser extent the opposition of realists and nominalists on the question of universals. The type of philosophy that was being taught in the Christian schools of the time has been given the name of scholasticism. Scholastics shared a common respect for the ideas of Aristotle, Plato, Boethius, Pseudo-Dionysius, and Avicenna. These were referred to by scholastics as the authorities. The views of the time were mainly Augustinian and Platonic although certainRead MoreEssay on Garber on Descartes860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRetention In Daniel GarberÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"Descartes against his teachers: The Refutation of HylomorphismÃ¢â¬ , the metaphysics of the early scholastics is presented to show the similarities and differences between what Descartes was taught through scholasticism and what he came to refute. Through analysis of the article I will present what Descartes considered to be the central ideas of scholastic metaphysics, as well as show what he chose reject from that doctrine, why he chose to reject it, and whatRead MoreA 12th Century Renaissance Essay1883 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagescentury. During this time, scholasticism rose to the forefront of philosophy as an effective and finely honed argumentative method (Swanson 103). Scholasticism was a method of taking a source document and other documents pertaining to that one, finding contradictions with them, and then finding ways to resolve the contradictions. This was often useful at solving theological debates, but would come to be applied to c lassical philosophy and other subjects as well. Scholasticism being developed at thisRead MoreAbelard and Aquinas Essay713 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagestheory an alternate approach. He taught in Paris and Italy during the years 1225 to 1274. Both of these new age thinkers changed the way Catholic followers viewed the natural world. Peter Abelard was one of the new thinkers that applied scholasticism to his theological aspects. According to the excerpt Scholastic thinkers assumed that some teachings of Christianity, which thy accepted as true by faith, could also be demonstrated to be true by reason (238). Peter Abelards famous literaryRead MoreThree Things Are Necessary For The Salvation Of Man1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknown otherwise as, the doctor of the church (Angelicius Doctor), is considered to be one of the most important and influential medieval philosopher and theologians of all time. It has been said that Thomas Aquinas was immensely influenced by scholasticism and Aristotle. When it comes to Saint ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s early life, he was born somewhere along the lines of 1225 or 1227; some proclaim him to being born on January 28th, 1225. Saint Thomas was one of eight children; and he was most likely born in hisRead MoreEssay on Faith and Reason1797 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBefore being able to truly u nderstand what each philosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s stance ultimately is, this writer feels that it is important to distinguish the difference between each school of thought; the schools of thought in particular would be mysticism and scholasticism. According to the class discussion, materials and presentation, the term mysticism refers to a very personal and individual religious experience. In this school of thought, private faith and philosophy is accompanied with an emotional experienceRead MoreThe Italian Kingdom Of Sicily1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswritings of great religious thinkers that influence the world today. The late Medieval period witnessed the rise of the religious movement which was lead by Thomas Aquinas who invented the Thomistic way of thought which was based around Medieval scholasticism. He revolutionized the catholic church beginning in 1245 when he moved to Paris and studied under Albertus the Great. I am a monk who studies in a monastery similar to one that Thomas Aquinas studied in his earlier years. I, like Aquinas, wasRead MoreThe Life Of Thomas Aquinas2700 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesphilosophical works, to theological treatises, to commentaries on works of Aristotle and on Scripture (Magee). The two biggest accomplishments of Thomas were his studies on faith and reason and his monumental Summa Theologiae- a masterpiece of medieval scholasticism which is seen as ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢s most influential work and biggest contribution (IEP). The Summa Theologiae, also known as the Summa Theologica or Summa, is a very in depth and tricky work, but it is one of the classics of the history of philosophy andRead MoreShift from Medieval Scholasticism to Humanism800 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries saw a shift away from the traditional methods of medieval scholasticism which focused primarily on preparing men to be doctors, lawyers and priests and instead saw the beginnings of a movement which would become known as Rennaissance Humanism. This new movement was a rejection of the traditional methods, aiming instead to create a citizenry which could read and write with eloquence, and allowing them to participate in civic life - in this we see the originsRead MoreThe Developmental Impact of Scholasticism Essay examples1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesScholasticism, which experienced its height around 1250, was the conjunction of faith and reason directed toward understanding the contradictions in the bible and Church teachings. The goal was to strengthen the ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings by validating them against argument and critical analysis (at least more critically than previously had been allowed with the sole goal of producing results positive to ward the Church.) There were warnings made by Anselm of Canterbury that reason and religious studies donÃ¢â¬â¢t
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Show how will your chosen organisation compete within its business area. Answer: Introduction The main aim of any business is to earn profits by selling its products. This is only possible when the products satisfy the needs of the buyers. It is not sufficient for the company to know the needs of its target customers. The enterprise should also have the capability to acquire and manage efficiently the resources needed to produce such products. This is why the organization needs to have a proper operations strategy which enables it to produce quality products at reasonable costs to the company so that it can make a profit. Ford Motors is one such company which has become a leader in the automobile industry largely due to the efficient management of its operations. Ford Motors strategy to compete within its business area Ford Motors is one of the leading automobile manufacturers of the world selling its products in United States of America, Europe and Asia (Ford Motor Company, 2016). The company faces tough challenge from its competitors like General Motors, Toyota, etc. Almost fifty percent of the companys revenues come from United States Of America. The Company would therefore continue to focus on meeting the needs of its customers in this country by providing more innovative and wide variety of products. The company would manage its operations efficiently to meet the demand of its customers in time. Further the company would try to cut costs to increase its profitability by employing technology in managing its operations. Quality control would be a top priority for the company. Operations strategy formulation in Ford Motors Operations management is concerned with managing the change of an organizations inputs into finished goods using different processes and systems within the firm. Operations strategy is about determining the plan of action that the company would adopt to make products that are desired by its customers in an optimum way with minimum costs to the company and at the same time not compromising on the quality of the products (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). The objective of the firm is to maintain continuity in production to meet the quantity demanded by the customers. The first stage in the operations strategy process is the operations strategy formulation. There are different areas in the operations strategy formulation like enterprise resource planning, identifying process activities, inventory management, quality controls, supply chain management, project management, plant capacity management, etc. A business organization while formulating its operations strategy has to take into consideration what kind of products it wants to make and for what kind of customers. Ford Motor Company makes cars, trucks and small utility vehicles for its customers in United States of America, Europe and Asia. In order to meet the demand of its customers all over the world the company has established factories in different countries. The company has set up modern, technologically advanced plants where quality automobiles which are more fuel efficient, safe and which make lesser carbon emissions are made (Ford Motor Company, 2016). Although the company had to put lot of money in the construction of these plants, these assets have helped the company make p roducts which have significant market shares across the world. Ford Motor Company has been following the lean production system to optimize the flow of production and materials to get the firms products to their customers with speed. This system has also led to energy savings and lesser use of resources in the production process. The company follows the assembly line production method which has led to increased production capacity. The company sources components from suppliers all over the world and has also resorted to backward integration by making automobile parts at its own facilities (Monizka et. al, 2016) .This is the right policy as there are many parts in an automobile and it is convenient and economical to source them from suppliers rather than produce all of them. This way the company can concentrate more on other areas of production. Ford Motors has been following standard procedures for maintaining quality of its products. The company performs random batch tests of its automobiles. The company has been constantly engaged in research and development to produce automobiles with more features and improved performance. Operations strategy implementation in Ford Motors The operations strategy adopted by Ford Motors aims at improving the cost structure, raise the quality of the companys products and hasten the process of the development of innovative and more attractive products for its customers (Kourdi, 2015). One of the steps that Ford Motors has taken to reduce its costs is to reduce the number of its production platforms. The company adopted what is called the One Ford Plan. Under this plan the company has restructured its global operations. There was a time when the regional production centres of the company operated as individual business units. This was changed and uniform procedures and processes have been adopted at all global plants of the company. This policy is more efficient and has led to cost savings. The company has taken initiatives to develop a skilled and global workforce which is capable of working in different parts of the world (Mathis, Jackson and Valentine, 2016). The company has been providing different facilities to its employees like health care programs so that employees are fit enough leading to increased productivity. The company has a diverse workforce which is provided a safe environment where they can work with dignity. The employees of the company are one of the most important resources of the company. Ford Motors has over the years worked to train and develop suppliers with whom the company has developed healthy relationships. The company has tried to secure supplier commitment to control costs, improve quality and meet sustainability standards (Krajewski, Ritzman and Malhotra, 2013). The company has taken steps for the modernization of its production facilities over the years. There have been engineering feasibility studies and evaluations done by the company to constantly improve the production processes. The company has developed new engine transmission technologies, size and weight reductions, advanced powertrain optios, etc to meet the changing needs of the customers. Ford Motors has increased its product planning and design capabilities by setting up eight engineering research and development centres that work cooperating with one another. Operation strategy monitoring in Ford Motors It is very important to monitor the progress of the implementation of the operations strategy in a company (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). It is not enough to make plans if the things are not happening on the ground as desired. An organization has to put in place systems that can be used to monitor whether the predetermined strategy is being followed and what are the effects of that on the working and output of the organization. In Ford Motors scanners are used to monitor the delivery of automobile parts to the company by its suppliers. Further the company has put in place a logistics management system. An order taking software is used by the company. Technology is used in the company to keep track of how the different operations are taking place (Campbell, Edgar and Stonehouse, 2011). Ford Motors highly automated operations are controlled to a great extent by information technology. The assembly lines are managed using computers. This also helps in keeping record of operations and one can identify the location of an error if things go wrong. Further the company has also helped its dealer network adopt the use of information technology in its operations. This has led to speed, convenience and efficiency in operations. Ford motors employs automated scheduling in production facilities. The company has introduced short term and intermediate scheduling of processes and resources at its plants. This has helped to avoid wastage and interruptions in the production process. The chances of human error have been reduced considerably. The company has taken adequate steps for internal data collection and storage (Campbell, Stonehouse and Edgar, 2011). There are monthly, weekly and daily reports made relating to production performance. In case the company takes on a new project, the responsibility for the project is given to a team but the individuals in the team are also made accountable for completion of certain tasks and their performance is recorded and reported. Ford Motors follows the policy of carrying out its operations in a sustainable way (Ford Motor Company, 2016). In Ford Motors data is collected relating to the commodities being purchased by the company, the suppliers location, its training and audit history. Further representatives from Ford Motors are required to report any human right violation from the suppliers. Operations strategy control in Ford Motors The kind of organizational structure that a company has also determines to a significant extent the kind of control the firm would have on its operations. Ford Motors has divided its business all over the world into three geographical divisions only. This has helped the company in integrating its business strategies with lesser difficulty. Further the company has different functional groups within its organization like global manufacturing and labour affairs, quality and new model launch, finance, legal, etc. The organizational structure at Ford Motors suits traditional business management approaches that involve top to bottom control. Ford Motors has adopted Six Sigma a data driven approach which involves improving business processes by collecting data and analyzing it through the use of statistical tools. This approach aims at eliminating any defects in goods manufactured by the company. The use of this method has led to better control at Ford Motors. The company has adopted total quality management. This methodology is concerned with improving business processes leading to elimination of waste and lack of quality at different levels. This has helped in better quality control at the organization. Ford Motors organizes Global Pulse And Engagement Surveys to measure employee satisfaction. Accordingly the company takes steps for providing better facilities to its employees (Werner, Schuler and Jackson, 2012). Analysis of different business strategies that might be employed by Ford Motors Ford Motors has been making significant efforts over the years to develop its research and development facilities. The company has built the infrastructure and also a team of researchers, engineers and designers in its facilities. Not many companies can match this capability of Ford Motors. The company should continue to build innovative products for its markets all over the world. The company should follow this policy of differentiation to gain competitive advantage (Campbell, Edgar and Stonehouse, 2011). Secondly, Ford Motors should make deeper market penetration by selling more products to current customers. The company needs to make more efforts to attain efficiency in its operations through means like better processes and systems so that additional demand can be met in time and at greater convenience to the consumer. Thirdly, Ford Motors should make more efforts to develop more capable leaders in its organization. The executives in the organization should be given more training opportunities and exposure in different markets (Mathis, Jackson and Valentine, 2016). The company should pick the best people from different parts of the world and groom them to lead teams in different departments including production. The company should promote an environment where the employees are encouraged to learn new skills. Fourthly, the company should follow the strategy of adding to its list of suppliers so that the company does not remain dependent on the present number of suppliers. The aim of the company is to sell more products and this would mean increased demand for components and parts. The company should try to reduce its supplier risks by developing more suppliers by providing them training and other forms of support (Monizka, et al., 2016). Fifthly, Ford Motors should continue to find new methods for improving the quality of its products. The company should make more efforts to develop a more effective quality management program. Ensuring a good quality of its products should remain a top priority for the company. Operations management contributions to improving strategy at Ford Motors In any company production department plays a very important role because a major portion of the costs of the company are incurred in this department. Moreover the variety and quality of goods that are made by the production department also determine to a great extent the kind of revenues and profits the company is able to make. There was a time when the Ford Motors could capture the market for automobiles by producing cars at lower costs by employing the assembly line method of production and producing cars at mass scale. But as other companies also started using same production methods, lower costs were not enough and Ford Motors have been able to enjoy a significant market share because the production department of the company has been able to make innovative products and product differentiation has become a major weapon for the company to grow (Gong, 2013). Ford Motors has been using latest technologies like 3D printing to produce prototypes of new parts with speed and lower costs. The company has been making more use of digital technology in its cars in the construction of dashboards, entertainment systems in the cars (Ford Motor Company, 2016). The developments in the research and development facilities of the company have impacted the kind of product offerings the company has come up with. The ideas generated in the production department have given a direction to the whole company. Now the company has a vision for the future which it could not have imagined a few years ago (Ford Motor Company, 2016). The kinds of products and technologies that have been developed by the production department have shaped this vision. Ford Motors reduced the number of its production platforms to lower costs (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). But inspite of this reduction, the company has been able to produce many models of cars. This indicates the efficiency, and innovative practice in the production department. Further, the company has made improvements in its assembly line production facilties. New technology has been employed constantly. The company has been aiming for growth in the markets of its products. But this growth has not come at the price of unlimited costs. The efficiency of the production department has helped to keep the costs down even as more ambitious new product offerings were developed and made in the company. The production department at Ford Motors has taken the lead in implementing innovative practices like establishing warehouses where the suppliers could deliver automobile parts, leading to reduction in costs. Further, by using special kinds of steel and aluminium in production, the strength of vehicles has gone up and weight has gone down. The production department has taken the lead in promoting a culture of innovation in the company and also inspiring the other departments. Conclusion and recommendations Ford Motors has been able to do well in the highly competitive automobile industry in different parts of the world. The credit for this success also goes significantly to the fact that the company has been able to offer automobiles to its customers, which are good on different fronts like quality, variety, affordability, comfort, storage capacity, etc. The company has been able to make such products as a result of its continuous efforts to improve processes and equipment in its departments (Gong, 2013). The company has been able to put into effect a well thought out operations strategy to meet enterprise objectives. Ford Motors also needs to look at the future if it wants to achieve continuous growth. The company has to beat the competition in United States Of America and increase its market share there. But the company also needs to take steps to expand its markets in the emerging economies of the world which have huge potential. The environment and needs of customers in these count ries are different and the company has to meet the challenge to develop and sell its products in these countries to sustain its global growth. References Campbell, D. , Edgar, D. and Stonehouse, G. (2011). Business Strategy: An Introduction. United Kingdom: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Ford Motor Company (2016). Annual Report. Available at: https://corporate.ford.com/homepage.html (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Ford Motor Company (2016). Innovation. Available at: https://corporate.ford.com/homepage.html (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Ford Motor Company (2016). Sustainability Report. Available at: https://corporate.ford.com/homepage.html (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Ford Motor Company (2016). Vehicles. Available at: https://corporate.ford.com/homepage.html (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Gong, Y. (2013). Global Operations Strategy: Fundamentals And Practice. United Kingdom: Springer. Kourdi, J. (2015). Business Strategy: A Guide To Effective Decision Making. 3rd(edn.) United Kingdom: Profile Books Limited. Krajewski, L. , Ritzman, L. and Malhotra, M. (2013). Operations Management: Processes And Supply Chains. United Kingdom: Pearson. Mathis, R. , Jackson, J. and Valentine, S. (2016). Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives. 7th (edn.) United Kingdom: Cengage Learning. Monizka, R., Handfield, R. , Giunipero, L. and Patterson, J. (2016). Purchasing And Supply Chain Management. 6th (edn.) United Kingdom: Cengage Learning. Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, R. (2010). Operations Management. 6th (edn.) United Kingdom: Pearson. Warner, S., Schuler, R. and Jackson, S. (2012). Human Resource Management. United Kingdom: South Western Cengage Learning.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Photosynthesis Lab Report Paper The following terms were used in this experiment Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis. Http://biology. CLC. Us. Due/courses/Bobbie/photons. HTML 2- Chloroplasts: are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts capture light energy, store t in the energy storage molecules TAP and NADIA and use it in the process called photosynthesis to make organic molecules and free oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Chloroplast 4- stoma, also called Stoma, plural Stomata, or Stoma, any of the microscopic openings or pores in the epidermis of leaves and young stems. Stomata are generally more numerous on the underside of leaves. They provide for the exchange of gases between the outside air and the branched system of interconnecting air canals within the leaf. A stomata opens and closes in espouse to the internal pressure of two sausage-shaped guard cells that surround it. The inner wall of a guard cell is thicker than the outer wall. Http://www. Britannica. Com/Upchucked/topic/567123/stomata Hypothesis: Purpose of this experiment is to determine if the light a spinach plant is exposed to affects the rate of its photosynthesis. Hypothesis 1: I believe that the spinach leaves that are only exposed to room light will have a slower rate of photosynthesis, and the spinach plants that are exposed to incandescent light will photosynthesis faster. We will write a custom essay sample on Photosynthesis Lab Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Photosynthesis Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Photosynthesis Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Hypothesis 2: I believe that an increase in the bicarbonate concentrations increases the rate at which CO is incorporated into carbohydrate in the light-independent reaction, and so the rate of photosynthesis generally increases until its limited by another factor Materials and methods: Materials: Bicarbonate, Vacuum (Water aspirator), Large beaker, Spinach Leaves, Drinking straw (Hole puncher), Timer, Lamp (light source), and 3 Petri dishes. There were 3 types of variables involved in the experiment Independent Variable: The light a plant is exposed to during photosynthesis (room light or light from a 120 watt lamp). Dependent Variable: The rate of photosynthesis of a plant exposed solely to either room or lamp light. Controlled Variables: Amount of light the plant receives, the intensity of the light, type of light bulb, the amount of time the plant is exposed to one type of light, the type of plant, health of plant, age of plant, amount of oxygen the plants are exposed to, amount of carbon dioxide the plants are exposed to, amount of water the plant receives, amount of water the leaf disks are soaked in, amount of bicarbonate in the water solution, the intensity of the vacuum created. Method: First, we stack many spinach leaves, and with the straw, we punch 10-15 uniform leaf disks for each Petri dish. After that we prepare 100 ml of bicarbonate solution in the water aspirator. Once the container is ready, we put the leaf disks into it to infiltrate them with the sodium bicarbonate solution. We seal the container and immediately connect it to the faucet, we turn the water on (both hot and cold) and let it run for about a minute. After that we turn the water off and unseal the container. With doing so, the air spaces in the leaf disks are infiltrated causing the disks to sink. At this point, we are ready to transfer the leaf disks into the Petri dishes for the experiment. We fell the three Petri dishes with h inch of the 0. 05% solution and transform 10-15 leaf disks into each. Then we place the first Petri dish which is covered under the light source and we put the beaker on top of it, the beaker will be filled with IL of cold water to act as a heat filter and then we start the timer. At the end of each 10 min, we observe and record the number of floating disks. Continue observing the leaf disks until the end of the mini. As of the second Petri dish, we cover the sis and keep it at the room light and watch it and keep recording the floating disk every 10 min. Finally the third Petri dish, will not be exposed to light at all, so it will be covered with aluminum foil and will be kept for the whole 40 min. In order to see how many disk floated in that period. Results: For this experiment, we measured how long it takes for spinach plants to photosynthesis under a room light and also a Iamb (light source). We timed how many leaf disks rose in 10/20/30/40 minute duration under a room light, a lamp (light source) and in the dark as well. The results came out positive purporting the hypothesis as shown on the results section of the attached Raw Data Sheet. We then calculated the average amount of time it took the spinach leaves to photosynthesis under each amount of light, graphed these averages in order to show our results. The Y axis on our graph shows the number of floating leaf disks and the X axis represents the average time it took for the leaf disks to rise. (Duration was forty minutes. ) According to our data, the leaf disks exposed to lamp light rose faster, as shown in the graph below. Discussion: I think that the concentration of Bicarbonate could have affected our results. While the oxygen is removed from all leaf disks we picked, there was some of them might have been more thoroughly infiltrated than others. For example, when we picked the disks, some of them sank immediately while others took a while. Also possible that when we distributed the leaf disks, we may have put some of the leaf disks that were not infiltrated under the room light. Because they already had some oxygen in them, they could have been more likely to float quicker. Additionally, there are other factors could have influenced our results detrimentally, as well. In addition, although this method is an easy way to measure the rate of photosynthesis, it is not the most accurate. Cellular respiration, a process that uses the oxygen produced during light reactions, could have occurred. If the oxygen produced by the leaf disks was used during cellular respiration, the leaf disks might not have risen even though they did photosynthesis. I think to improve this experiment next time; we have to keep all these factors in mind, also make sure to pick the leaves off the spinach plant ourselves, or at least ascertain the health and age of both the leaves we use ND the plant they are from, not to mentioned doing the vacuuming process as well. In general, for future experiments, I would allot more time and have more materials and do the whole process. Conducting such an experiment inspired me to conduct similar experiments, testing the rate of photosynthesis under even more conditions. I would want to test and see whether photosynthesis occurs faster when plants are exposed to the sun light (outdoor). Overall, this experiment was a good learning experience. It helped me learn how to put together an experiment and pay attention to even the minute details that can significantly alter ones results.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Domestic Abuse essays It is estimated that domestic abuse affects at least 2 million married Americans every year. The number rises further when adding in non-married and gay couples (Hamberger and Renzetti, 1996, pg. xi). Clearly, the problem of domestic abuse is widespread, even out of control in America today. While domestic abuse happens in both sexes, it seems to affect women more than it does men. Women are often dominated so effectively by their partners that they will not speak out about the abuse because they are fearful of more violence. Some men even threaten their partners with death if they discuss the violence at home. Some women are held virtual prisoners in their own homes by their abusive mates. What causes domestic abuse, and how can it be controlled in our country' Just like most violent criminals, domestic abusers have some patterns of behavior in common. Many researchers have found that majorities of abusers have psychological disorders. They write, "The most frequently reported are the borderline, antisocial, and compulsive personality disorders and  the violence-prone personality" (Hamberger 1996, pg. xii-xiii). In addition, it is common for abusers to come from abusive homes; they simply repeat the violent patterns they learned as children. In addition, one self-proclaimed abuser notes, abusers tend to have low self-esteem, volatile tempers, are exceptionally possessive and/or jealous, have a need to have power over others, feelings of isolation and a need to be "fixed" or taken care of, a history of cruelty or violence, and fear of abandonment, which may often stem from childhood abuse (H., Will). However, not all abusers have psychological problems, and other experts argue that abusers are as much a product of society as they are their own personality disorders (Hamberger abusers come from a...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Stetson University Admissions and Acceptance Rate As two-thirds of applicants are admitted to Stetson University each year, students with good grades and strong writing skills have a good chance of being accepted to the school. Interested students will need to submit an application, official high school transcripts, letters of recommendation, and a writing sample. SAT and/or ACT scores are not required. Ã Neither are campus visits, although they are encouraged for all applicants. You can apply with the Common Application or use the applications available on the universitys website. Calculate your chances of getting in with this free tool from Cappex. Admissions Data (2016) Stetson University Acceptance Rate: 66Ã percentGPA, SAT and ACT graph for StetsonTest Scores 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: - / -SAT Math: - / -SAT Writing: - / -What these SAT numbers meanTop Florida college SAT score comparisonAtlantic Sun Conference SAT comparisonACT Composite: - / -ACT English: - / -ACT Math: - / -What these ACT numbers meanTop Florida college ACT score comparisonAtlantic Sun Conference ACT comparison Stetson University Description Stetson University has four campuses in Florida, but the main undergraduate campus is in DeLand Florida, west of Daytona Beach. The other campuses are in Celebration, Tampa, and Gulfport. Founded in 1883, the university has a rich history and the DeLand campus is on the National Register of Historic Places. Explore the campus with theÃ Stetson University Photo Tour. The university has an 11 to 1Ã student / faculty ratio, and students can choose from 60 majors and minors. Business fields are the most popular among undergraduates, but Stetsons strengths in the liberal arts and sciences earned the school a chapter of the prestigiousÃ Phi Beta KappaÃ Honor Society. Students can choose from a wide range of clubs and activities, and on the athletic front, the StetsonÃ HattersÃ compete in the NCAA Division IÃ Atlantic Sun Conference. Their colors are green and white and the mascot is John B. Enrollment (2016) Total Enrollment: 4,357Ã (3,089 undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 42Ã percent male / 58 percent female99% Full-time Costs (2016-17) Tuition and Fees: $43,240Books: $1,200 (why so much?)Room and Board: $12,326Other Expenses: $3,000Total Cost: $59,766 Stetson University Financial Aid (2015 -16) Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 100 percentPercentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 100 percentLoans: 62Ã percentAverage Amount of AidGrants: $31,082Loans: $7,942The deadline for most Stetson University scholarships is February 15. Academic Programs Most Popular Majors:Ã Accounting, Business Administration, Elementary Education, English, Finance, Marketing, Political Science, Psychology What major is right for you?Ã Sign up to take the free My Careers and Majors Quiz at Cappex. Graduation and Retention Rates First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 79Ã percent4-Year Graduation Rate: 56 percent6-Year Graduation Rate: 64 percent Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Mens Sports:Ã Football, Golf, Soccer, Baseball, Tennis, Track and Field, BasketballWomens Sports:Ã Lacrosse, Rowing, Soccer, Track and Field, Volleyball, Basketball, Golf Admissions Information for Other Florida Colleges and Universities: Eckerd | Embry-Riddle | Flagler | Florida | Florida Atlantic | FGCU | Florida Tech | FIU | Florida Southern | Florida State | Miami | New College | Rollins | Stetson | UCF | UNF | USF | U of Tampa | UWF Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics
Thursday, November 21, 2019
GATTACA film - Essay Example Specifically, Socrates writes the following: [H]e who has experience of the manner in which we order justice and administer the State, and still remains, has entered into an implied contract that he will do as we command him. He claims that those who do not obey commands are unjust because they have accepted parental training and education from the state. If they fail to convince the state otherwise, disobedience itself is a kind of crime against the state. Taking this definition on its surface, the character of Vincent Anton Freeman in GATTACA can be shown to violate his contract with the state by trying to rise above his genetically prescribed circumstances. There are many different examples available to show that Vincent refuses to accept his lot in the society of GATTACA. Three such examples will be shown here. First, from his early childhood, Vincent competes against his brother Anton in swimming contests. They swim out to sea and see which one gives up first and swims back. In these early contests, Vincent loses to his brother due to his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s superior genetic make-up. However, he continues trying to beat his brother rather than accepting this outcome. In the end, he learns to beat his brother by using all his strength to swim out, not saving anything for the swim back. In this example, he learns that his will can overcome his genetic destiny. Exercising this, he violates his supposed understanding with the state. Second, Vincent decides he wants to become an elite astronaut. In this choice, he also violates his implied contract, which should require him to accept a menial job not afforded those without superior genetics. In the mere decision to attempt to become more than is available to him, Vincent goes against the deterministic direction the state tells him he should accept. While one could make the argument that by attempting to leave earth and go to the stars, Vincent is in fact Ã¢â¬Å"leavingÃ¢â¬ the state, the fact that he uses state space programs in order to achieve his dreams of becoming more indicates that he has accepted the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s material conditions without accepting its moral dictates. Third, and finally, the fact that Vincent uses deception to achieve his dream of becoming an astronaut shows that he violates his contract. He steals DNA from a person with a Ã¢â¬Å"superiorÃ¢â¬ profile and uses this to impersonate a different identity. He even undergoes surgery to make himself taller, so that he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be detected. In doing this, he shows that, on one hand, he is willing to live within the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, but on the other he does not accept its ultimate ordering of justice. He deceives the state while accepting the benefits that it affords him as he lives under that deception. GATTACA, in the end, poses questions about the justice of a state that is formed on genetic determinism. However, it is also an example of a citizen acting within such a state in a way that is, contrac tually speaking, unjust. By using the state for his own private ends, Vincent can be said to be unjust, in view of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ definition. The fact that we pull for him forces us to ask questions about this social contract and about the nature of justice generally. Second Prompt In her poem, Ã¢â¬Å"EthicsÃ¢â¬ Linda Pastan defines a situation in which a person must choose between saving a classic painting and another, older human being. She considers this question in light
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Do concerns for safety influence the effectiveness of the outdoor learning environment for children - Dissertation Example In practice, it has been proved that the value of outdoor learning in improving the learning abilities of a child is unique. Still, because of safety reasons, barriers are often set in regard to outdoor learning activities, a problem appearing both in the context of school and the family. Moreover, the perceptions of people on the importance of outdoor learning seem to be differentiated. For certain people, the value of outdoor learning activities is unique allowing the child and the teenager to develop his cognitive skills. For others, these activities are just part of the learning process. This means that under certain terms, the limitation of these activities would be welcomed in order to serve a need of higher importance. Securing the health and safety of children and teenagers is considered as such need. The increase of accidents and violent incidents during outdoor learning activities worldwide seems to justify such trend. ... the teachers and the parents, are not fully aware of the value and the needs of these activities. It is suggested that the increase of outdoor learning activities worldwide is initiated, despite the high risks involved, under the terms that outdoor learning providers are appropriately trained for providing effective support to the children participating in such activities. Chapter One Ã¢â¬â Introduction 1.1 Overview of the study The study aims to present the various implications of the relationship between outdoor learning and safety. Particular emphasis is paid on the effects of safety on the design and quality of outdoor learning. The improvement of the learning skills of children and teenagers has been a key challenge for educators worldwide. Outdoor learning has been proved as a key tool for facing the above challenge. However, the development of outdoor learning around the world faces significant barriers. Most commonly, the need for ensuring the health and safety of children and teenager is used as a justification for preventing the expansion of outdoor learning. The above practice leads to the decrease of the value of childhood. Indeed, it has been supported that Ã¢â¬Ëchildhood is becoming undermined by risk aversionÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gill 2007, p.10 in Bilton, 2010, p.27). At the same time, the concerns on children safety have led to the limitation of the freedom of children to travel to school alone. In a relevant research it has been estimated that Ã¢â¬Ëin 1970 a percentage of 80% of children aged 7 and 8 years used to travel to school on their ownÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tovey 2007, p.3); in 1990 Ã¢â¬Ëthis percentage has been reduced to just 10%Ã¢â¬â¢ (Tovey 2007, p.3). It is clear that safety has highly affected childhood. Outdoor learning
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Developing Concept of the Restaurant Essay Restaurants plays a significant role in our lifestyle, and dining out is a favourite social activity. Everyone needs to eat, to enjoy good food and, perhaps, a wine in the company of friends and in pleasant surroundings is one of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasures. Eating out has become a way of life for families. Nowadays, a buoyant economy has given us higher disposable incomes, which allows more meals away from home. The restaurant business is fun. A lot of people coming and going, lots of new faces and never get lonely. The business is always challenging because other restaurant owners are striving to attract our guests but with the right location, menu, atmosphere, and management, it continues to attract the market. The successful restaurant offers a high return on investment, one restaurant, then two, perhaps a small chain and then retire wealthy. There are more than hundreds of restaurants in Bhutan and each year few restaurants open and few close or other just fades away. People contemplating opening a restaurant come from diverse backgrounds and bring with them a wealth of experience. However, there is no substitute for experience in the restaurant business especially in the segment in which we are planning to operate. Read more:Ã Essays About Restaurant ReviewÃ Developing a Concept The Star restaurant will be the mid-scale restaurant which is owned by Mr. Thinley in Thimphu at Dechencholing. It will be at very reasonable price ranging from Nu.75-2000. The restaurant will feature mostly the chicken-made dishes. Star restaurant mainly focuses on the interior design of the restaurant. The restaurant will offer a dine-in buffet, carryout and delivery to the surrounding neighbourhoods and area businesses. Also its location will give the guests a beautiful and pleasant environment. Its speciality is that it is mainly targets the celebrities so everyone can meet their own favourite celebrity. While preparation of the guestsÃ¢â¬â¢ order, the latest songs will be played and in having their meal acoustic music of jazz will be played so they can relish their mind. The furniture used will be in the shape of the star with a background colour of black. The floor carpet will be in the shape of the stars twinkling in the night. The ceiling will be the 2D image of the stars. My Restaurant The Star restaurant will be about 2-Storeyed with a mission stated below: Mission: The Star restaurant is a great place to eat, combining an intriguing atmosphere with excellent, interesting food. The mission is not only to have great tasting food, but have efficient and friendly service because customer satisfaction is paramount. We want to be the restaurant choice for all families and singles, young and old, male or female. Employee welfare will be equally important to our success. Everyone will be treated fairly and with the utmost respect. Happy employees make happy guests. We will combine menu variety, atmosphere, ambiance, special theme nights and a friendly staff to create a sense of place in order to reach our goal of overall value in the dining/entertainment experience. We want fair profits for the owners and a reward. Feasibility study Location: Location is a primary goal in running a business like services industry. The star restaurantÃ¢â¬â¢s location is in Dechencholing, Thimphu Bhutan. The Starr Restaurant will be located at the top of the palace where the parking is available with a clear sign board .The disposal income of the resident is not that much higher but they love to dine out. With the modernization, Dechencholing is now town plan B. And the population is accelerating as Royal Body Guards increases year by year. Their trend as of now is that they love eating and their children love to visit discotheque. Location of the Star Restaurant is more convenient for the people of the Dechencholing to visit as it will be connected with the road. Market: The market is a fundamental for the operations of the restaurant without market it is same like season without winter. As of now there is no restaurant that offers what guestsÃ¢â¬â¢ demand. There are some restaurant that is of low quality and mostly those restaurant offers beverages and fast food like pizza, Chana and Samosa etc. So if the Star restaurant is operating in Dechencholing, it will be a monopoly and it will be of high quality that satisfies what guest demand. Competition: Business without competition will take advantage of offering poor quality with a high price. Competition occurs when two or more organizations act independently to supply their products to the same group of consumers. So there is no similar restaurant that offers the services like the Star restaurant. Only thing is if the pricing is high people of that place will not come to the Star restaurant. If not there is no competitor but in the future it might occur. Trends of locality: The current trend of the Dechencholing people is that they go to the main town to enjoy a meal from the restaurant, to have fun, to celebrate birthdays and so on. Also the monks from Tango monastery and Pangri Zampa go to the main town to enjoy their meal. The royal bodyguards go to the main town to dine out with their families. So the Star restaurant will solve those problems by offering better services than the restaurants in the town areas.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
It's Time for West Virginia to Eliminate Food Tax Can you recall an incident in American history involving disgruntled citizens dumping tea into the Boston Harbor? I can. This tea dumping was one of the foremost events of the revolution. Do you remember why these angry citizens dressed as Indians, stormed one of their own boats, and dumped all of the crates of tea into the harbor? The English monarchyÃ¢â¬â¢s taxing of the settlersÃ¢â¬â¢ tea caused this uprising. Right now, West VirginiaÃ¢â¬â¢s government is levying an almost identical tax; the government is taxing the very food that West Virginians eat for survival. DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t the government tax enough each year without taxing something that is required for our very sustenance? According to USA Today, "The government takes more money in other taxes each year than the average American spends on food, shelter, and clothing combined." (Armey, internet) At least the first Americans could choose whether or not they would drink tea. Currently, West Virginians do not have the cho ice whether or not to eat food. Why should we have to pay any more than the store charges us for the food? It is time for the legislature in West Virginia to reform West VirginiaÃ¢â¬â¢s tax system and do away with the ridiculous tax on food. Initially, a West Virginia food tax doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem like such a bad idea, but after contemplating the principles, it becomes more and more unethical. Ethically, why should West Virginians pay tax on food when many other American citizens do not? Consequently, a West Virginia food tax is unethical in that it punishes the poor. Every year in West Virginia, poor children go hungry because their families canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to put food on the table. I conducted an independent survey involving fifty anon... ... On Food Would Aid The Poor" St Louis Post Dispatch. 3-28-97 page 1 and 2 Bill Rankin. "Like most tax cuts, stateÃ¢â¬â¢s elimination of food sales tax hinders real: reform". Atlanta Journal and Constitution. 6 October 1996. http://www.elibrary.com/ Sam Attlesey. "Democrats support sales tax amendment: Proposal would ban levy on food, medicine". The Dallas Morning News. 19 March 1998. www.elibrary.com Andrew Cain. "Help take a bite out of food tax". The Washington Times". 29 September 1998. Gene Callahan. "Bandersnatch Tax cut Proposal". http://www.bandersnatch.com/ Warren McGraw. "Elect Warren McGraw to the supreme court". Radio Commercial. 27 October 1998. Staton, Rick. Personal interview. 7 Nov. 1998. Cecil Underwood. "GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s Commission on Fair Taxation". www.state.wv.us/fairtax/agenda.htm Cadle, Pat. Personal interview. 8 Nov. 1998
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
1. How did I engage myself with the group? Deciding which group or organization to engage with was not easy for me. I had to play around with some ideas and think which one because we have plenty of them around here. In my community we have Trauma Center, FAMSA; we also have lay counselors who are making a difference in more informal way. However deciding how to approach one of them wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy at all. I felt anxious every time I had to make a choice. I reflected to one of my experiences I encountered long time ago when I relocated to another country (Angola) for three years. When I had to meet different people, different culture, language and so forth. It was totally new environment for me and I had to adjust very fast. The first step I took was to make an appointment with one nurse in charge in our local clinic to authorize me to do my observation in the clinic with the help of my nephew who was employed at the clinic. She agreed. I also went to FAMSA and try to negotiate my entry there as person who needs help, unfo rtunately, they were not in that day. Then I decided to engage with the group located in my clinic where I got permission. . I learned lay counselors are in attempt to bring change in our community. Targeted members are those patients who visit or come to clinic on a daily basis for various reasons. The group meets during the week (Monday to Friday) at 8am Ã¢â¬â 10pm. The establishment of the group was two years ago because the concern some few community members had. It seems it has been started by local community members who were concerned about certain issues that affect people. They felt that buy working together as community would bring a difference and enhance life of other people. They also thought that this group will bring some changes in their homes and to community as a whole. This awareness program is not static, new members are introduced daily, weekly and monthly as the group is informal. The program compels no one to stay, people do have right to choice and freedom and itÃ¢â¬â¢s being respected by everyone. The goal of this program is to make the people aware of some disease and illness that affect us and consciously and unconsciously. I understand since this program started two years ago, it has been successful. People show interestsÃ and others report that there has been a radical change in their lives as now they know the importance of taking their treatment especially on time, completing the treatment, eating healthy, exercising, teenage pregnancy decreased as youth now know how to protect themselves against the diseases, abortions decreased and so forth. This kind of reports is what kept the program alive. I also understand this program reached so many people every month as they count approximately 300 to 400 monthly. Again they hope that in the long run the community will be better, HIV/AIDS, TB, Teenage pregnancy will be decreased by 50%. What made them certain is that in 2012 when this program commenced within six to seven months, TB and HIV/AIDS was combated seriously and clinic reported that 2% less/ reduced. I also learned that people wants to be taught with the language they understand so that they can participate fully about the things affect their lives on the daily basis. I came to know the group because I am also a community member who also uses the facilities available to my community such as the clinic. Most of the time when I visited my clinic I used to see people entering certain door and I asked a friend who was sitting next to me and also as I have mentioned above I have a nephew who is employed there about the group and she explained to me. Initially, I never give myself time to join or to be interested in whatever they are doing but studying this module made me to be interested in the group. My nephew who works at the clinic helped me to enter the space by introducing me to the nurse in charge. I made appointment with appointment with the nurse. I had to make an appointment because for me it indicated respect as I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t just enter as I please in the group without permission. I had five minutes with the nurse and explain who I am? What do I want to do? Why, How? When? And after that she gave me permission. What is important IÃ indicated that whatever I am going to observe here is strictly confidential; itÃ¢â¬â¢s only for my assignment purpose. The nurse introduced me to the facilitator who was facilitating the group and I was highly accepted as part of the family but as an observer. The main area of focus is to teach orÃ make the community members aware about various issues that affect them on the daily basis. Issues such as Teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, TB, STIÃ¢â¬â¢s, etc. They also focused on teaching morality because they believe good morality will result in reduced mortality. 2. I had few assumptions before engaging in the context. Assumption 1- The Environment= the environment should be conducive so that members should be comfortable. Assumption 2-The group share common interest. Assumption 3- They group should share common problem. Assumption 4- They must have open communication. Assumption 5 Ã¢â¬â They should have solution to their problem. Assumption 6 Ã¢â¬â Decisions are made collectively. All these assumptions are only based on my observations that are not confirmed. I was also aware that even though they form a group but they are still unique individuals with their unique experiences (proposition 1 & 2). These unique experiences will bring change to their lives. I also believed that as a group they have collective knowledge, skills and potential. The only thing that is required is the facilitator to release that potential resource. Aspects pertaining to the social context as well as social issues that the group is grappling with or the challenges the group is facing are denial and distortions about the disease such as HIV/AIDS. Some member of the group came with the interesting aspect that HIV/Aids caused by super natural causes. It is caused by people casting a spell over you (bewitched) (boloi- South Sotho). Some will say the disease can be cured, they know the traditional healers who cured somebody. Some will say its indicationÃ of ancestors calling. Some claims that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have food in order for them to take treatment. Because of these challenges the program had to be adjusted a little bit to accommodate these challenges. The members will somewhere somehow include God and super naturals in their discussions, for an example, a woman was taught about the HIV/AIDS illness, how we contact it and so forth, and she also made her inputs that in the Bible all these illnesses where predicted, therefore its not a miracle. During my observation I realized that people are struggling to relate with theÃ environment also with one another. For an example, during the session the group members were afraid to talk their hearts out. I can assume that members know each other perhaps as a neighbor, friend. Therefore, their friendship or neighbor relationship deprived them freely participation in the group as one will think that what others will do or say or one doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want others to know about his /her business or issues the one struggling with. According to part two of the study Guide Ã¢â¬â The Ã¢â¬ËcrackedÃ¢â¬â¢ landscape Ã¢â¬â Society in crisis. I have realized that people are not aware that they are not alone, they are not individuals. They failed to cherish the idea of Ã¢â¬Ëmotho ke motho ka batho ba bangÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËHumanityÃ¢â¬â¢. They still isolate themselves, still have negative thinking that no one can help them and yet they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that this behavior is abnormal as it makes us to live like animals Ã¢â¬â where we should be on a look out everyday Ã¢â¬â who says wh at, to whom? In what manner? This behavior also creates tension between the people, create hunger, poverty, violence, discrimination (Study Guide for PYC3705:24). Our society is broken into smaller pieces. However, As I was observing this group I realized positive things about the members. Even though disclosing in public is not their way of life but they do need help. I saw this after the first session ended. Some of them wanted private dialogue with the facilitator. Others shared their experiences with others in private. That private conversation gave them hope and less despair and that allowed development among the group itself. The second session Ã¢â¬â the following day I saw different group thanÃ yesterday in terms of enthusiasm, energy. The dialogue was just open and free and that also helped other to open up. I heared other member of the group says Ã¢â¬Å"Ka ikutlwa ke fodileÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"She now feels better or healedÃ¢â¬ . That where I learned that talking or opening up indeed heals and assist the government cost on medicine. I think the are some similarities and differences I have observed with regard to what constitute a counseling setting. Why I am saying this is because firstly, as I have mentioned above about the well reception I received from the group and the counselors. This indicated positive regard for othersÃ Unconditional positive regard is one of the climate that the counselor should create so that people should feel accepted, and that how I felt. As I observed the counselor/ facilitatorÃ¢â¬â¢s. According to study guide for PYC3705:40, explains that unconditional positive regard is being present is the basis from which people can explore thoughts, feelings and experiences. This is what I saw from the lay counselor. That is reason why members of the group were able to express their feelings about the HIV/AIDS issues. Even though members introduced their knowledge about traditional healers who can treat various illnesses, she was non Ã¢â¬â judgmental, she showed warmth through body langu age Ã¢â¬â used posture, maintained eye contact and that indicated one of the values that she should have Ã¢â¬â Respect. Secondly, she created the safe environment (proposition 17). She allowed the group members to be themselves. She let them to deal with the issues they felt strong about e.g. (What do you guys want us to talk about today?). She let them to self determine (proposition 4). She never judged them. She respected every oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. She listens to each and every one of them. She was attending every member of the group. The lay counselors even though they conduct counseling informally as they have no formal training in psychology , like Mrs. Bengu in the study guide for PYC3705 they provide emotional support in the community in collaboration with others. What I also observed in this group is Ã¢â¬ËConfidentialityÃ¢â¬â¢. We know that this is a dilemma. One member in the group requested that what they discussed in there it should end there. She herself she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hear her problems outside that group. If her request is not respected, then she will be very disappointed. All members including the facilitator agreed on that and made promise to one another that they will be confidential. This indicated the unity of the group (proposition 3). The differences I saw was lay counselor couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognize the discrepancies between what the member was saying and how was said or behaved. She was just accepting what ever the member said. Two, non-verbal communication, what the member was communicating through her body language e.g. member is communicating something but she puts hands on her mouth. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t use minimal encouragers, open question paraphrasing and so forth. The lack of attentiveness skill. According to (Grobler andÃ Schenck 2009:46), attentiveness is the way in which the facilitator orientates him or herself physically and psychologically towards the clients. However, the counselor will answer her phone during the session with the client without apologies. This is the evidence that I have conducted a proper research. As I have mentioned earlier the group is located in my local clinic and is informal, is not registered, the counselors are not qualified or trained. Therefore, they make use of the pamphlets available in the clinic such as Drug-resistant, TB and HIV and TB in the Workplace. REFERENCES Grobler, H. &Schenck, R. 2009. Person centred facilitation. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press Modutla, K. & Semenya, B. 2010. Only study Guide for Transformative counseling encounters. University of South Africa. Louw, H. 2008-2010. Only study guide for Participatory community development in social work and the social service professions. University of South Africa.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The stars were as thick as weeds in an unkempt field, and for the first time, Lathan Devers found the figures to the right of the decimal point of prime importance in calculating the cuts through the hyper-regions. There was a claustrophobic sensation about the necessity for leaps of not more than a light-year. There was a frightening harshness about a sky which glittered unbrokenly in every direction. It was being lost in a sea of radiation. And in the center of an open cluster of ten thousand stars, whose light tore to shreds the feebly encircling darkness, there circled the huge Imperial planet, Trantor. But it was more than a planet; it was the living pulse beat of an Empire of twenty million stellar systems. It had only one, function, administration; one purpose, government; and one manufactured product, law. The entire world was one functional distortion. There was no living object on its surface hut man, his pets, and his parasites. No blade of grass or fragment of uncovered soil could be found outside the hundred square miles of the Imperial Palace. No fresh water outside the Palace grounds existed but in the vast underground cisterns that held the water supply of a world. The lustrous, indestructible, incorruptible metal that was the unbroken surface of the planet was the foundation of the huge, metal structures that mazed the planet. They were structures connected by causeways; laced by corridors; cubbyholed by offices; basemented by the huge retail centers that covered square miles; penthoused by the glittering amusement world that sparkled into life each night. One could walk around the world of Trantor and never leave that one conglomerate building, nor see the city. A fleet of ships greater in number than all the war fleets the Empire had ever supported landed their cargoes on Trantor each day to feed the forty billions of humans who gave nothing in exchange but the fulfillment of the necessity of untangling the myriads of threads that spiraled into the central administration of the most complex government Humanity had ever known. Twenty agricultural worlds were the granary of Trantor. A universe was its servant. Tightly held by the huge metal arms on either side, the trade ship was gently lowered down the huge ramp that led to the hangar. Already Devers had fumed his way through the manifold complications of a world conceived in paper work and dedicated to the principle of the form-in-quadruplicate. There had been the preliminary halt in space, where the first of what had grown into a hundred questionnaires had been filled out. There were the hundred cross-examinations, the routine administration of a simple Probe, the photographing of the ship, the Characteristic-Analysis of the two men, and the subsequent recording of the same, the search for contraband, the payment of the entry tax Ã¢â¬â and finally the question of the identity cards and visitor's visa. Ducem Barr was a Siwennian and subject of the Emperor, but Lathan Devers was an unknown without the requisite documents. The official in charge at the moment was devastated with sorrow, but Devers could not enter. In fact, he would have to be held for official investigation. From somewhere a hundred credits in crisp, new bills backed by the estates of Lord Brodrig made their appearance, and changed bands quietly. The official hemmed importantly and the devastation of his sorrow was assuaged. A new form made its appearance from the appropriate pigeonhole. It was filled out rapidly and efficiently, with the Devers characteristic thereto formally and properly attached. The two men, trader and patrician, entered Siwenna. In the hangar, the trade ship was another vessel to be cached, photographed, recorded, contents noted, identity cards of passengers facsimiled, and for which a suitable fee was paid, recorded, and receipted. And then Devers was on a huge terrace under the bright white sun, along which women chattered, children shrieked, and men sipped drinks languidly and listened to the huge televisors blaring out the news of the Empire. Barr paid a requisite number of iridium coins and appropriated the uppermost member of a pile of newspapers. It was the Trantor Imperial News, official organ of the government. In the back of the news room, there was the soft clicking noise of additional editions being printed in long-distance sympathy with the busy machines at the Imperial News offices ten thousand miles away by corridor Ã¢â¬â six thousand by air-machine Ã¢â¬â just as ten million sets of copies were being likewise printed at that moment in ten million other news rooms all over the planet. Barr glanced at the headlines and said softly, Ã¢â¬Å"What shall we do first?Ã¢â¬ Devers tried to shake himself out of his depression. He was in a universe far removed from his own, on a world that weighted him down with its intricacy, among people whose doings were incomprehensible and whose language was nearly so. The gleaming metallic towers that surrounded him and continued onwards in never-ending multiplicity to beyond the horizon oppressed him; the whole busy, unheeding life of a world-metropolis cast him into the horrible gloom of isolation and pygmyish unimportance. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"I better leave it to you, doc.Ã¢â¬ Barr was calm, low-voice. Ã¢â¬Å"I tried to tell you, but it's hard to believe without seeing for yourself, I know that. Do you know how many people want to see the Emperor every day? About one million. Do you know how many he sees? About ten. We'll have to work through the civil service, and that makes it harder. But we can't afford the aristocracy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We have almost one hundred thousand.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A single Peer of the Realm would cost us that, and it would take at least three or four to form an adequate bridge to the Emperor. It may take fifty chief commissioners and senior supervisors to do the same, but they would cost us only a hundred apiece perhaps. I'll do the talking. In the first place, they wouldn't understand your accent, and in the second, you don't know the etiquette of Imperial bribery. It's an art, I assure you. Ah!Ã¢â¬ The third page of the Imperial News had what he wanted and he passed the paper to Devers. Devers read slowly. The vocabulary was strange, but he understood. He looked up, and his eyes were dark with concern. He slapped the news sheet angrily with the back of his hand. Ã¢â¬Å"You think this can be trusted?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Within limits,Ã¢â¬ replied Barr, calmly. Ã¢â¬Å"It's highly improbable that the Foundation fleet was wiped out. They've probably reported that several times already, if they've gone by the usual war-reporting technique of a world capital far from the actual scene of fighting. What it means, though, is that Riose has won another battle, which would be none-too-unexpected. It says he's captured Loris. Is that the capital planet of the Kingdom of Loris?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ brooded Devers, Ã¢â¬Å"or of what used to be the Kingdom of Loris. And it's not twenty parsecs from the Foundation. Doc, we've got to work fast.Ã¢â¬ Barr shrugged, Ã¢â¬Å"You can't go fast on Trantor. If you try, you'll end up at the point of an atom-blaster, most likely.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How long will it take?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A month, if we're lucky. A month, and our hundred thousand credits Ã¢â¬â if even that will suffice. And that is providing the Emperor does not take it into his head in the meantime to travel to the Summer Planets, where he sees no petitioners at all.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But the Foundation-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"-Will take care of itself, as heretofore. Come, there's the question of dinner. I'm hungry. And afterwards, the evening is ours and we may as well use it. We shall never see Trantor or any world like it again, you know.Ã¢â¬ The Home Commissioner of the Outer Provinces spread his pudgy hands helplessly and peered at the petitioners with owlish nearsightedness. Ã¢â¬Å"But the Emperor is indisposed, gentlemen. It is really useless to take the matter to my superior. His Imperial Majesty has seen no one in a week.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He will see us,Ã¢â¬ said Barr, with an affectation of confidence. Ã¢â¬Å"It is but a question of seeing a member of the staff of the Privy Secretary.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Impossible,Ã¢â¬ said the commissioner emphatically. Ã¢â¬Å"It would be the worth of my job to attempt that. Now if you could but be more explicit concerning the nature of your business. I'm willing to help you, understand, but naturally I want something less vague, something I can present to my superior as reason for taking the matter further.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If my business were such that it could be told to any but the highest,Ã¢â¬ suggested Barr, smoothly, Ã¢â¬Å"it would scarcely be important enough to rate audience with His Imperial Majesty. I propose that you take a chance. I might remind you that if His Imperial Majesty attaches the importance to our business which we guarantee that he will, you will stand certain to receive the honors you will deserve for helping us now.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but-Ã¢â¬ and the commissioner shrugged, wordlessly. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a chance,Ã¢â¬ agreed Barr. Ã¢â¬Å"Naturally, a risk should have its compensation. It is a rather great favor to ask you, but we have already been greatly obliged with your kindness in offering us this opportunity to explain our problem. But if you would allow us to express our gratitude just slightly by-Ã¢â¬Å" Devers scowled. He had heard this speech with its slight variations twenty times in the past month. It ended, as always, in a quick shift of the half-hidden bills. But the epilogue differed here. Usually the bills vanished immediately; here they remained in plain view, while slowly the commissioner counted them, inspecting them front and back as he did so. There was a subtle change in his voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Backed by the Privy Secretary, hey? Good money!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"To get back to the subject-Ã¢â¬ urged Barr. Ã¢â¬Å"No, but wait,Ã¢â¬ interrupted the commissioner, Ã¢â¬Å"let us go back by easy stages. I really do wish to know what your business can be. This money, it is fresh and new, and you must have a good deal, for it strikes me that you have seen other officials before me. Come, now, what about it?Ã¢â¬ Barr said, Ã¢â¬Å"I don't see what you are driving at.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why, see here, it might be proven that you are upon the planet illegally, since the Identification and Entry Cards of your silent friend are certainly inadequate. He is not a subject of the Emperor.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I deny that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It doesn't matter that you do,Ã¢â¬ said the commissioner, with sudden bluntness. Ã¢â¬Å"The official who signed his Cards for the sum of a hundred credits has confessed Ã¢â¬â under pressure Ã¢â¬â and we know more of you than you think.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you are hinting, sir, that the sum we have asked you to accept is inadequate in view of the risks-Ã¢â¬Å" The commissioner smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"On the contrary, it is more than adequate.Ã¢â¬ He tossed the bills aside. Ã¢â¬Å"To return to what I was saying, it is the Emperor himself who has become interested in your case. Is it not true, sirs, that you have recently been guests of General Riose? Is it not true that you have escaped from the midst of his army with, to put it mildly, astonishing ease? Is it not true that you possess a small fortune in bills backed by Lord Brodrig's estates? In short, is it not true that you are a pair of spies and assassins sent here to Ã¢â¬â Well, you shall tell us yourself who paid you and for what!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know,Ã¢â¬ said Barr, with silky anger, Ã¢â¬Å"I deny the right of a petty commissioner to accuse us of crimes. We will leave.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You will not leave.Ã¢â¬ The commissioner arose, and his eyes no longer seemed near-sighted. Ã¢â¬Å"You need answer no question now; that will be reserved for a later Ã¢â¬â and more forceful Ã¢â¬â time. Nor am I a commissioner; I am a Lieutenant of the Imperial Police. You are under arrest.Ã¢â¬ There was a glitteringly efficient blast-gun in his fist as he smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"There are greater men than you under arrest this day. It is a hornet's nest we are cleaning up.Ã¢â¬ Devers snarled and reached slowly for his own gun. The lieutenant of police smiled more broadly and squeezed the contacts. The blasting line of force struck Devers' chest in an accurate blaze of destruction Ã¢â¬â that bounced harmlessly off his personal shield in sparkling spicules of light. Devers shot in turn, and the lieutenant's head fell from off an upper torso that had disappeared. It was still smiling as it lay in the jag of sunshine which entered through the new-made hole in the wall. It was through the back entrance that they left. Devers said huskily, Ã¢â¬Å"Quickly to the ship. They'll have the alarm out in no time.Ã¢â¬ He cursed in a ferocious whisper. Ã¢â¬Å"It's another plan that's backfired. I could swear the space fiend himself is against me.Ã¢â¬ It was in the open that they became aware of the jabbering crowds that surrounded the huge televisors. They had no time to wait; the disconnected roaring words that reached them, they disregarded. But Barr snatched a copy of the Imperial News before diving into the huge barn of the hangar, where the ship lifted hastily through a giant cavity burnt fiercely into the roof. Ã¢â¬Å"Can you get away from them?Ã¢â¬ asked Barr. Ten ships of the traffic-police wildly followed the runaway craft that had burst out of the lawful, radio-beamed Path of Leaving, and then broken every speed law in creation. Further behind still, sleek vessels of the Secret Service were lifting in pursuit of a carefully described ship manned by two thoroughly identified murderers. Ã¢â¬Å"Watch me,Ã¢â¬ said Devers, and savagely shifted into hyperspace two thousand miles above the surface of Trantor. The shift, so near a planetary mass, meant unconsciousness for Barr and a fearful haze of pain for Devers, but light-years further, space above them was clear. Devers' somber pride in his ship burst to the surface. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"There's not an Imperial ship that could follow me anywhere.Ã¢â¬ And then, bitterly, Ã¢â¬Å"But there is nowhere left to run to for us, and we can't fight their weight. What's there to do? What can anyone do?Ã¢â¬ Barr moved feebly on his cot. The effect of the hypershift had not yet worn off, and each of his muscles ached. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"No one has to do anything. It's all over. Here!Ã¢â¬ He passed the copy of the Imperial News that he still clutched, and the headlines were enough for the trader. Ã¢â¬Å"Recalled and arrested Ã¢â¬â Riose and Brodrig,Ã¢â¬ Devers muttered. He stared blankly at Barr. Ã¢â¬Å"Why?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The story doesn't say, but what does it matter? The war with the Foundation is over, and at this moment, Siwenna is revolting. Read the story and see.Ã¢â¬ His voice was drifting off. Ã¢â¬Å"We'll stop in some of the provinces and find out the later details. If you don't mind, I'll go to sleep now.Ã¢â¬ And he did. In grasshopper jumps of increasing magnitude, the trade ship was spanning the Galaxy in its return to the Foundation.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Lolita essays How can someone create a world inside of a world? People of this generation and of generations past have possessed imagination in one form, perhaps two... Words are sometimes hidden by the people who use their imagination. Some (if not most) people are in touch with their imagination. Only but a few people are more in touch with their imagination than reality. Those people usually have a deep and dark hatred for reality. In Reading Lolita in Tehran, Azar Nafisi describes and reflects upon the creation of the other world outside of her room. How can I create this other world outside the room? I have no choice but to appeal once again to your imagination. Lets imagine one of the girls, say Sanaz, leaving my house and let us follow her from there to her final destination. She says her good-byes and puts on her black scarf over her orange shirt and jeans, coiling her scarf around her neck to cover her huge gold earrings. She directs wayward strands of hair under the scarf, puts her notes into her large bag, straps it on over her shoulder and walks out into the hall. She pauses a moment on top of the stairs to put on thin lacy black gloves to hide her nail polish. (26) In this passage, Nafisi is inviting readers to the imaginative part of the brain. That part of the brain is the part of the brain that gives human beings the power to give life and the power to move mountains. Oh, did I mention the power to take the life of another being? The power to, oh, should I say murder?! The last thing a person experiences in life is death. Many people believe in another life after death. The life spent after death is believed to be spent in a place called Heaven or in a place called Hell. Nafisi feels oppressed by the rules and restrictions of the Iranian government. She is searching for a way out. In the end, it does not matter who Nafisi will take down with her. She only knows that s ...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
U.S. Constitution - Article I, Section 10 Article I, Section 10 of the United States Constitution plays a key role in the American system of federalism by limiting the powers of the states. Under the Article, the states are forbidden from entering into treaties with foreign nations; instead reserving that power to the President of the United States, with the approval of two-thirds of the U.S. Senate. In addition, the states are forbidden from printing or coining their own money and from granting titles of nobility. Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution limits the powers of the states by prohibiting them from entering into treaties with foreign nations (a power reserved to the president with the consent of the Senate), printing their own money, or granting titles of nobility.Like Congress, the states may not pass Ã¢â¬Å"bills of attainder,Ã¢â¬ laws declaring any person or group guilty of a crime without due process of law, Ã¢â¬Å"ex post facto laws,Ã¢â¬ laws that make an act illegal retroactively or laws that interfere with legal contracts.In addition, no state, without the approval of both houses of Congress, may collect taxes on imports or exports, raise an army or harbor warships in times of peace, nor otherwise declare or engage in war unless invaded or in imminent danger. Article I itself lays out the design, function, and powers of the Congress Ã¢â¬â the legislative branch of U.S. government Ã¢â¬â and established many elements the vital separation of powers (checks and balances) between the three branches of government. In addition, Article I describes how and when U.S. Senators and Representatives are to be elected, and the process by which Congress enacts laws. Specifically, the three clauses of Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution do the following: Clause 1: the Obligations of Contracts Clause Ã¢â¬Å"No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.Ã¢â¬ The Obligations of Contracts Clause, typically called simply the Contracts Clause, prohibits the states from interfering with private contracts. While the clause might be applied to many types of common business dealings today, the framers of the Constitution intended it mainly to protect contracts providing for the payments of debts. Under the weaker Articles of Confederation, the states were allowed to enact preferential laws forgiving the debts of particular individuals. The Contracts Clause also prohibits the states from issuing their own paper money or coins and requires the states to use only valid U.S. money Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"gold and silver CoinÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â to pay their debts. In addition, the clause prohibits the states from creating bills of attainder or ex-post facto laws declaring a person or group of persons guilty of a crime and prescribing their punishment without the benefit of a trial or judicial hearing. Article I, Section 9, clause 3, of the Constitution similarly prohibits the federal government from enacting such laws. Today, the Contract Clause applies to most contracts such as leases or vendor contracts between private citizens or business entities. In general, the states may not obstruct or alter the terms of a contract once that contract has been agreed to. However, the clause applies only to the state legislatures and does not apply to court decisions. Clause 2: the Import-Export Clause Ã¢â¬Å"No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its [sic] inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul [sic] of the Congress.Ã¢â¬ Further limiting the powers of the states, the Export-Imports Clause prohibits the states, without the approval of the U.S. Congress, from imposing tariffs or other taxes on imported and exported goods in excess of the costs necessary for their inspection as required by state laws. In addition, the revenue raised from all import or export tariffs or taxes must be paid to the federal government, rather than the states. In 1869, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Import-Export Clause applies only to imports and exports with foreign nations and not to imports and exports between states. Clause 3: the Compact Clause Ã¢â¬Å"No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.Ã¢â¬ The Compact Clause prevents the states, without the consent of Congress, from maintaining armies or navies during a time of peace. Additionally, the states may not enter into alliances with foreign nations, nor engage in war unless invaded. The clause, however, does not apply to the National Guard. The framers of the Constitution were keenly aware that allowing military alliances between the states or between the states and foreign powers would seriously endanger the union. While the Articles of Confederation contained similar prohibitions, the framers felt that stronger and more precise language was needed to ensure the supremacy of the federal government in foreign affairs. Considering its need for it so obvious, the delegates of the Constitutional Convention approved the Compact Clause with little debate.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Assignment Example The maximum values however shown that while North Utsire does not high wind speeds most of the time, there are a few instances where it experiences the highest wind speeds. Like is the case with other measures, Rockall experiences a marginally higher lower quartile as compared to North Utsire showing reduced prevalence of low speed winds for Rockall. It further exhibits a higher upper quartile showing high prevalence of high speed winds. This finding is reflected in the box and whisker plot whereby for the case of Rockall, the whisker plot shows closeness of the highest value and the upper quartile. However, for North Utsire, the plot shows a big difference between the upper quartile and the maximum value. The graph further shows that wind speeds in North Utsire are mainly concentrated at the lower speeds with spontaneous occurrence of high speed winds. The calculations and graphical presentations reveal that measures of central tendency are not in themselves, sufficient enough to draw conclusions with reference to a particular weather condition. While the means of the two stations fall closely, it is evident that the areas exhibit marginally different weather conditions. In essence, it highlights the importance of looking at all the measures before drawing conclusion about the weather of a particular
Friday, November 1, 2019
Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy - Research Paper Example On entering Afghanistan in the first lime, the U.S. troop focused on overthrowing the governing Taliban, which had provided haven for al-Qaeda. Although the U.S. troop took several years before fully taking control, on entering Afghanistan, they took less than three months and defeated the Taliban. In 2009, the war still continued. Researchers believe that the economy of Pakistan has since then been destabilized. On coming into power, President Obama, through his advisors documented that the destabilization would be one of the countries biggest foreign policy challenge (Scott, 2003). Therefore, Obama committed another 17,000 troops to Afghanistan to increase the number to approximately 55,000 troops. ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment into the war has since then seen the war change the name from Afghan war to ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s war.U.S. focuses on counter attacking terrorism and promote the stability of the country. ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy was to disrupt, dismantle, and conquer al-Qaeda based in Afghanistan and Pakistan (Baker, 2009). It is hopeful that this attack will prevent their return back into the country. Vietnam is another country whose relation is similar to that of Afghanistan as discussed below. Vietnam War, according to historians is arguably a war that caused death many innocent people. As documented by Levy, (2004), this war claimed not less than 2 million people who were civilians, over 200,000 South Vietnamese army troops, over a million soldiers from the north, and approximately 58,000 soldiers from America. Although the communist North eventually defeated South Vietnam, U.S. contributed immensely to end this war through their support to South Vietnam. From the communist perspective, U.S. were to blame for ruining the country. The reason why U.S. was highly blamed was due to the use of herbicides. These herbicides like Agent Orange polluted the Vietnam environment contributing to health hazards. SRV, popularly known as Socialist Republic of Vietnam, was fo rmed by the United Vietnam and its capital set at Hanoi. The relationship that existed between America and the formed SRV was unstable, which caused the U.S. army to react. The two countries (U.S and Vietnam) remained connected due to the concern that U.S. showed to its prisoners who were held in Vietnam during the war. In addition, the Water Scandal contributed significantly to the deterioration of the relation. As a result, communist Vietnam lost trust with U.S. Since U.S. proved persistent, the effects brought about by the post-Vietnam War period impacted U.S. development positively leading to a new world formation. By mid 1990s, there existed no established diplomatic relations. The efforts to have the two countries united seemed unrealizable. However, after creation of Ambassador between the two countries, this dreams seemed close to realization. When this association was introduced, other associations came in and successfully moved forward. For instance, a bilateral trade Agre ement was signed in 2000. Further still, Vietnam was included in the World trade Organization at the start of 2006 (Levy, 2004). Other significant association that occurred during these times was the close visits by senior officials. For instance, the then U.S. president Bill Clinton visited Vietnam in 2000, while the Van Khai, the then prime minister visited US in several occasions in 2005. From 2006, it is evident that the U.S. and Vietnam relation has had a positive turn. In 2007, Nguyen Minh, the Vietnam president visited U.S. for the first time ever