Wednesday, October 30, 2019

What effect did the Rise of Science have on theories of Educational Essay

What effect did the Rise of Science have on theories of Educational Practice - Essay Example Education empowers individuals to lead their lives autonomously, participate in the community activities, and pursue their goals. Through education children acquire culture, which ultimately helps them orient their social conduct in the right direction. School is just another and a superficial means, of education. A large proportion of education is ingrained from other agencies (Dewey, 1926:4-5). Education and learning are closely related and are, at times, used synonymously. History of education can be dichotomized as the development of curricula and development of learning and teaching In the primordial world, education concerned only with cultural transmission. Since there was little that changed in everyday life, education too changed and deviated little, from set standards. The aim of education was merely to make the children fit enough to take up their roles in tribes. In those societies education was achieved through oral instruction or imitation. As the human life became more complex, there arose the need to impart education in vocational skills like hunting, farming, and animal husbandry. During the rise of ancient civilizations and development of languages, education became more formal and complex. The birth of formal education system is variously attributed to the Egyptian, Chinese, and Mesopotamian Civilizations between 3000 and 1500 B.C. In the Egyptian society, education was only carried out by priestly class that held sway in the society and enjoyed political clout as well. The priests dispensed, to a group of elite students, esoteric knowledge of subjects like science, medicine, and mathematics. Mesopotamian civilization had a tradition of teaching children belonging to the upper crust of the society. Education consisted of learning subjects like law, mathematics, and astrology. In the ancient Chinese civilization, education was about development of secular values, moral uprightness, use of rituals, and music. Later, toward the 1st

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Lumbar Metastatic Disease Diagnosis

Lumbar Metastatic Disease Diagnosis Arlena Davis What additional historical information do you want to collect from the patient? Healthcare professionals are supposed to gather historical information from the patient when diagnosing lumbar pain. Gathering historical information ensures proper diagnosis of lumbar pain and treatment. The following historical information would be obtained from the patient. The doctor will determine whether the patient has had any spinal problems since birth. Also, the doctor will determine whether the patient has had lumbar pain before and any treatment. In addition, the physician will determine whether the lumbar pain was sudden or gradual. This is by asking the patient to describe how the pain began. Further, the patient will be required to state what increases or decreases the pain including rest or activity. Additionally, understanding the family history is vital in diagnosing lumbar pain. The health professional should determine if there is family history of lumbar pain. The doctor determines whether the patient is suffering from any disease that might cause the lumbar pain. Injuries and accidents can cause lumbar pain and the health professional should determine if the patient had an accident or injury. Wong,  D.A., Transfeldt, E., Macnab, I. (2007).  Macnab’s backache. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins What additional physical examination should you complete immediately and why? Physical examination is vital when diagnosing lumbar pain. Additional physical examinations are required to determine whether the patient has lumbar pain or not. The patient will do several movements while sitting, lying down and standing. This will make it easy to assess muscular and sensory problems causing the pain. Palpation is critical in identifying the affected area. Palpation helps the doctor feel tenderness and alignment of joints. This helps identify the inflamed lumbar area. Also, examining the leg pulse as pain increases the pulse. General examination of legs and trunk is done to identify the causes of the lumbar pain. Straight leg testing and nerve tests are done to determine whether the patient symptoms are due to pressure on the nerves or nerve compression. Tollison, C.D., Satterthwaite, J.R., Tollison, J.W. (2002).  Practical pain management. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins What differentials should you consider? A differential diagnosis is important when diagnosing lumbar pain as different diseases cause pain. Various diseases affecting the bladder, colon, abdomen aorta and kidney can cause pain. Therefore, different tests should be performed to rule out the diseases. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds are critical in ruling out the diseases. Clinical and neurological observations should be done to eliminate the diseases. CT, MRI, blood tests, urine tests, and complete blood tests are needed to differentiate different diagnoses. Beirman, R., Bull, P., Eaton, S.(2011). Cases in differential diagnosis for the physical and manipulative therapies. Australia: Elsiever Australia The clinical scenario suggests what diagnosis? The diagnosis shows that the patient has lumbar metastatic disease. The in house lumbar x-ray showed that lumbar vertebrae had lesions which are a sign for metastatic disease. The metastatic disease causes pain in the lumbar area. Metastatic disease occurs when cancer cells break away from a cancerous tumor and travel though the blood and lymph vessels to other regions including the lumbar vertebrae. The cancer cells settle in the lumbar vertebrae and start to grow and produce new tumors. The metastatic disease compresses or damages nerves and causes pain. Rabbani, S.A., Singh, G. (2007).  Bone metastasis: Experimental and clinical therapeutics. New York City: Springer Why does he have an elevated calcium and alkaline phosphatase? The patient has high levels of alkaline phosphate and calcium. He has alkaline phosphates of 850 and calcium of 11. The high levels of calcium and alkaline phosphates are due to the metastatic disease. Cancer cells affect the bones including lumbar vertebrae and damage them. Calcium is released into the blood as the cancer cells damage the bones. The level of calcium in the blood increases as more bones are damaged. The high levels of calcium in the blood lead to loss of appetite. The levels of alkaline phosphates increase as the damaged bones dissolve. Therefore, the high levels of alkali phosphates and calcium show that the lumbar vertebrae are damaged and have dissolved. The elevated levels of alkali phosphates can also be due to liver damage as the patient has hepatomegaly. Lipton, A et al. (2011). The Science and Practice of Bone Health in Oncology: Managing Bone Loss and Metastasis in Patients With Solid Tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw, s1-s30 Why does he have hepatomegaly and elevated ALT/AST? The patient has hepatomegaly which is the swelling of the liver. Cancer metastases cause the liver to swell. The patient has a swollen liver because of the metastatic disease. Cancer cells have spread to the liver and caused inflammation or swelling of the liver. Liver function tests are used to determine liver functioning or the condition of a patient’s liver. The tests include AST and ALT. The AST and ALT tests were done to determine whether the patient had liver damage. AST and ALT levels are raised if the patient has liver damage. The patient’s AST and ALT levels are 600 and 700 respectively. The AST and ATL levels can increase suddenly showing a sudden liver injury or gradually depicting continuing liver damage. Thus, the patient AST and ALT levels are high because he has liver injury caused by the metastatic disease. Wallach, J.B.(2007).  Interpretation of diagnostic tests. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins What additional screening blood test can help you confirm your diagnosis? Why is it used? There are different blood tests that can be used to confirm metastatic disease diagnosis. Blood chemistries can be done. A blood test is done to determine the amount of calcium in the blood. Calcium dissolves in the blood after bones are damages and this increases calcium levels. The patient is said to have metastatic disease if he has abnormal levels of calcium(high levels).A blood test is done to determine the level of alkaline phosphates in the blood as high levels show metastatic disease. A complete blood count can also be done as patients with metastatic bone diseases have no enough red blood cells. Schwab, M. (2008).  Encyclopedia of cancer. New York City: Springer References Beirman, R., Bull, P., Eaton, S. (2011). Cases in differential diagnosis for the physical and manipulative therapies. Australia: Elsiever Australia Lipton, A et al. (2011). The Science and Practice of Bone Health in Oncology: Managing Bone Loss and Metastasis in Patients With Solid Tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw, s1-s30 Rabbani, S.A., Singh, G. (2007).  Bone metastasis: Experimental and clinical therapeutics. New York City: Springer Schwab, M. (2008).  Encyclopedia of cancer. New York City: Springer Tollison, C.D., Satterthwaite, J.R., Tollison, J.W. (2002).  Practical pain management. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Wallach, J.B. (2007).  Interpretation of diagnostic tests. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Wong, D.A., Transfeldt, E., Macnab, I. (2007).  Macnab’s backache. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Friday, October 25, 2019

Essay --

Iran, India, and Mexico are in extremely different parts of the world, making them very different from each other. The three countries have different histories, geographies, and natural resources that have shaped their development. Still, an analysis of Iran’s, India’s, and Mexico’s economic development and globalization, media access and coverage, and political leaders, shows that there are some undeniable similarities. Despite the three countries being similar in some ways, overall Iran, India, and Mexico are extremely different from each other; each country has a different historical background that has shaped it to be what it is today economically, socially, and politically. I. Economic Development and Globalization Iran: In Iran, the economy relies on oil for much of the government’s revenue. Overall in Iran, the state has a very ineffective state sector, with statist policies that control much of what is economic policy. This creates a lot of economic issues, causing Iran’s economy to rely on oil. There is not much of a private sector in Iran besides small workshops, farming, and some manufacturing. The government’s price controls and subsidies often hinder private sector growth. In Iran, there is a good amount of informal economic exchange outside of government regulation, as well as corruption. In the early 1990’s Iran’s government realized they needed to improve many factors of the economy. One major law created to improve the economy was President Mahmud Ahmadi-Nejad’s Targeted Subsidies Law. The Majles, Iran’s national legislative body, passed this law in 2010 to reduce state subsidies on food and energy. Over a period of five years, Iran’s legislatures worked to remove subsidies from the economy that were very ... ... be said for Iran and India. Mr. Singh, like many of the political elite in Mexico, is highly educated. Although Iran, India, and Mexico are similar in some ways economically, socially, and politically, for the most part they are very different. Iran’s economy relies on oil, while India’s economy is more services-oriented. Still, Mexico’s economy is similar to India’s—both having significant private sectors. Also, Iran, India, and Mexico are similar in that each country has a state-run television broadcasting. However, Iran’s government is clearly the most strict with what its citizens can view and Mexico is less strict and has more broadcasting companies. Iran is also different from India and Mexico because Iran has a theocratic ruler, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, whereas the other two countries do not. Overall, these countries are very different from each other.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Leadership Management of the Virgin Group Essay

Change is the only constant in the world so when the world changes it is a must for an organisation to have the pace of change, to anticipate a success ahead. Virgin Atlantic has undergone many changes as the case in 1999 49% of Virgin Atlantic’s stake was sold to Singapore Airlines to have a partnership. (virginatlanbtic, 2010) and there was another change in 2008 where Virgin Atlantic started to use bio fuel instead of jet fuel(Virgin Atlantic,2011). When the organization faces challenges like these different situations, leadership styles canadapted to address the challenge. When Virgin Atlantic sold its 49% of stake to Singapore Airlines, it made the following challenges of merging, because now Virgin Atlantic is not fully authorized to change issues of it, it had to rely on Singapore Airlines too, so it can’t adapt an autocratic or bureaucratic leadership style, it should adapt the democratic where each party’s opinion is considered in the process of Virgin Atlantic. Since Richard Branson is a charismatic leader (Grant, 2004). He can easily adapt to any leadership style as it is required by the joint venture. In the case of bio fuel usage too the condition is the same. Being democratic the leader listens to the opinions from others too when there is an issue and can tell them the importance of change for an instance the bio fuel usage reduces green house gas emission in the environment, so it is an environmentally friendly activity. Task 2. 1 Virgin Atlantic is one of the successful products of The virgin Group whose organisational culture is quite complex, because this specific organisation has got more than 100 companies with often completely unrelated products. The Virgin Atlantic was too launched to expand the brand value of The Virgin Group, so having an understanding about The Virgin Group tells what kind of organisational strategy is followed in the Virgin Atlantic. It tries to create the loyalty of the customers; the innovative management inspires the employees to be actively engaged in the organisation (http://ivythesis. typepad. com/term_paper_topics/2010/07/case-study-richard-branson-and-the-virgin-group-of-companies-. html, 2010). Many leadership theories have influence over such organisational strategy of Virgin Atlantic. The transformational leadership can have positive impact on the development of the organisation. The possibility of having transformational leadership is assured where all united together as an organisation with sense of commitment (Naughtin), since Virgin Atlantic has a team work with the involvement of each employee, this leaderships favours the health of its organisational strategy, because here the group works under a common goal like increasing the image of Virgin Group in the world, which definitely increases the overall efficiency. Transactional leadership is something different from transformational, in transactional leadership personal performance of leadership is mainly concerned ,which can lead to greed and lack of team work. According to the organisational behaviour pattern of Virgin Atlantic this leadership theory won’t work well because, although the chairman is Richard Branson, he is not one, but million ones together who has the interest on Virgin Atlantic. So this style rarely helps to increase the performance of Virgin Atlantic. Task 2. 2 As stated above the vision of Virgin Atlantic is â€Å"to grow a profitable airline where people love to fly, and where people love to work†. Virgin Group has gone far in achieving this, but to be the one of the leading world’s airline, the organisation should have a realistic strategy with many features, that supports the direction of the organisation. Being a transformational and charismatic leader (Richard Branson) is the best to navigate Virgin Atlantic in the path of success (Virgin Atlantic, 2011).

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Celta Assignment 3

Reasons for choosing text Although a long piece of text, it contains an overall context of animal powers and is an interesting topic. Similar topics students have worked with include qualities of famous people and superheroes. It is an authentic text, containing a wide range of language items and so provides a challenge for intermediate students. The text could also be broken down into sections for specific tasks. Receptive language sub-skills that could be practised using this text include: reading for gist, scanning and reading for specific information.The text could also be adapted for teaching grammar and vocabulary. Match headings to text – skim reading for gist exercise ref p13-p15 Using text with headings blanked out. After pre-teaching the necessary vocabulary such as: telepathy and premonition, the teacher explains: ‘Here are some headings and here is a text. Read the text quickly. Match the correct headings to the correct paragraphs. ’ Concept check with : ‘Do you need to read every word? ’ Give time limit of 2-3 mins. Individuals read text then compare answers in their groups.Headings: Telepathic contact The common features of Animal Telepathy Explaining the Unexplained Heading for Home Premonition During feedback nominate and ask students to justify their reasons. Scanning task p13 and 14 Read the text quickly. Which person does each of these statements refer to? 1. They do not permit any other person to get close to her when she is in this condition. 2. I used to visit quite often, pop in and do all sorts of things 3. She never left my side, and during the night she slept next to my pillow 4.Jaytee started waiting at the window around the time she set off. 5. Horrified, I replaced the bottle top and, genuinely afraid of the dog, I went back into the room and sat on the sofa. 6. When we arrived home the man greeted us and said â€Å"I knew you were on your way home.. † 7. He conducted more than 100 videotaped e xperiments 8. My whole working life has been as a cabin crew member working out of Gatwick Airport True or false – scanning task ref p14. Explain task to students first before handing out handouts. ‘Here are some statements.Some are true, some are false. Read the text quickly and write down: true or false’ Give a 3 minute time limit. During feedback, nominate and get students to justify their answers. Statements Telepathy takes place between a dog and a cat? Christopher Day works in London? When Christopher Day visited as a vet, the dog would whoop with delight? P. Broccard wanted to kill herself? Pamponette is Miss Broccard’s first name? Adele McCormick owned 10 horses? William is a cat? William is 15 years old? Rupert conducted more than 100 videotaped experiments on Jaytee?Pam Smart would leave home and return at the same time each day? Pam Smart would always travel by train? Q &A for detailed comprehension ref p13-14 Perhaps a useful exercise as a foll ow up to a skimming or scanning exercise. Students will have been given the reading text from a previous exercise. Explain to students using the OHT ‘here is a list of numbers. What do they mean? ’ demo the first question. Students work individually then compare answers in pairs. Give students a 5 minute time limit. Nominate students during feedback. What is the significance of the following numbers . 50%In the UK and America 50% of dog owners had noticed their animals anticipating people arriving home. b. 30% c. 100 d. 13 e. 15 f. 50 g. 100,000 h. 18 i. 2000 Productive tasks Freer communicative practise Give students 5-10 minutes. Put background music on during the task. ‘Tell your partner about pets that you have now, had in the past or pets that belonged to friends’ your partner can ask: ‘do you think they were psychic? ’ ‘why? ’ Demo the task with: ‘My friend had a big white alsation that knew when his owner was coming ho me.Did you have any interesting pets? ’ Monitor, avoiding the centre of the room and ensure everyone gets practise speaking. For very quiet students, gently prompt with ‘what do you think? ’ During feedback ask ‘did anyone find out anything interesting? ’ Semi-controlled communicative practise (ref photo of cat p14) Allow 5-10 mins for this exercise. Put background music on during the task. Write target language as a prompt on the white board: Q. If you could have a power what wouId you choose? If I could have a power I would choose. because†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ If I could†¦(communicate telepathically)†¦It would be useful because†¦. Demo by asking a student the question. Ask students to get into pairs and ask each other what ability they would like to have and why, using the target language on the white board. Monitor, avoiding the centre of the room and ensure everyone gets practise speaking. For very quiet students, gently prompt with †˜what do you think? ’ During feedback ask ‘did anyone find out anything interesting? ’ Reference text: Kindred Spirit: Issue 50 Spring 2000 p13-16

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Biography of Woodrow Wilson, 28th U.S. President

Biography of Woodrow Wilson, 28th U.S. President Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924) was the 28th president of the United States, serving from 1913 to 1921. Prior to that, Wilson was the governor of New Jersey. Although he won reelection with the slogan He kept us out of war, Wilson was the commander-in-chief when the country finally entered World War I on April 6, 1917. Fast Facts: Woodrow Wilson Known For: Wilson was the president of the United States from 1913 to 1921.Born: December 28, 1856 in Staunton, VirginiaParents: Joseph Ruggles Wilson, a Presbyterian Minister, and Janet Woodrow WilsonDied: February 3, 1924 in Washington, D.C.Education: Davidson College, Princeton University, University of Virginia, Johns Hopkins UniversityAwards and Honors: Nobel Peace PrizeSpouse(s): Ellen Axson (m. 1885–1914), Edith Bolling (m. 1915–1924)Children: Margaret, Jessie, Eleanor Early Life Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born on December 28, 1856, in Staunton, Virginia. He was the son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson, a Presbyterian Minister, and Janet Jessie Woodrow Wilson. He had two sisters and one brother. Shortly after Wilsons birth, his family soon moved to Augusta, Georgia, where Wilson was educated at home. In 1873, he went to Davidson College but soon dropped out due to health issues. He entered the College of New Jersey- now known as Princeton University- in 1875. Wilson graduated in 1879 and went on to study at the University of Virginia School of Law. He was admitted to the bar in 1882. Being a lawyer, however, was not to his liking, and Wilson soon returned to school with plans to become an educator. He eventually earned a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1886. Marriage On June 23, 1885, Wilson married Ellen Louis Axson, the daughter of a Presbyterian minister. They would eventually have three daughters: Margaret Woodrow Wilson, Jessie Woodrow Wilson, and Eleanor Randolph Wilson. Career Wilson served as a professor at  Bryn Mawr College  from 1885 to 1888 and then as a professor of history at Wesleyan University from 1888 to 1890. Wilson then became a professor of political economy at Princeton. In 1902, he was appointed president of Princeton University, a post he held until 1910. In 1911, Wilson was elected governor of New Jersey. In this position, he made a name for himself by passing progressive reforms, including laws to reduce public corruption. Presidential Election of 1912 By 1912, Wilson had become a popular figure in progressive politics and actively campaigned for the Democratic Partys presidential nomination. After reaching out to other leaders in the party, Wilson was able to secure the nomination, with Indiana governor Thomas Marshall as the vice presidential nominee. Wilson was opposed not only by incumbent President  William Taft  but also by  Bull Moose  candidate  Theodore Roosevelt. The Republican Party was divided between Taft and Roosevelt, allowing Wilson to easily win the presidency with 42% of the vote. (Roosevelt received 27% of the vote and Taft garnered 23%.) Presidency One of the first events of Wilsons presidency was the passage of the Underwood Tariff. This reduced tariff rates from 41 to 27 percent. It also created the  first federal income tax  after the passage of the 16th Amendment. In 1913, the Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve system to help deal with economic highs and lows. It provided banks with loans and helped smooth out business cycles. In 1914, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act was passed to  improve labor rights. The law created protections for important labor negotiating tactics such as strikes, pickets, and boycotts. During this time, a revolution was occurring in Mexico. In 1914,  Venustiano Carranza  took over the Mexican government. However,  Pancho Villa  held much of northern Mexico. When Villa crossed into the United States in 1916 and killed 17 Americans, Wilson sent 6,000 troops under  General John Pershing  to the area. Pershing pursued Villa into Mexico, upsetting the Mexican government and Carranza. World War I  began in 1914 when  Archduke Francis Ferdinand  was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. Due to agreements made among  the European nations, many countries eventually joined the war. The  Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria- fought against the Allies, Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, China, and Greece. America initially remained neutral, and Wilson was renominated to run for the presidency in 1916 on the first ballot along with Marshall as his vice president. He was opposed by Republican Charles Evans Hughes. The Democrats used the slogan, He kept us out of war, as they campaigned for Wilson. Hughes had a lot of support, but Wilson ultimately won in a close election with 277 out of 534 electoral votes. In 1917, the United States entered World War I on the side of the Allies. Two reasons were the sinking of the British ship  Lusitania,  which killed 120 Americans, and the Zimmerman telegram, which revealed that Germany was trying to get an agreement with Mexico to form an alliance if the United States entered the war. Pershing led American troops into battle, helping defeat the Central Powers. An armistice was signed on November 11, 1918. The Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, blamed the war on Germany and demanded huge reparations. It also created a League of Nations. In the end, the U.S. Senate would not ratify the treaty and would never join the League. Death In 1921, Wilson retired in Washington, D.C. He was very sick. On February 3, 1924, he died of complications from a stroke. Legacy Woodrow Wilson played a huge role in determining if and when America would get involved in  World War I. He was an isolationist at heart who attempted to keep America out of the war. However, with the sinking of the Lusitania, the continued harassment of American ships by German submarines, and the release of the  Zimmerman Telegram, America would not be held back. Wilson fought for the creation of the  League of Nations  to help avert another world war; his efforts won him the 1919  Nobel Peace Prize. Sources Cooper, John Milton Jr.  Woodrow Wilson: a Biography. Random House, 2011.Maynard, W. Barksdale.  Woodrow Wilson: Princeton to the Presidency. Yale University Press, 2013.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Henry David Thoreau And “Walden”

Henry David Thoreau writes â€Å"Walden† with the intention of arousing emotion and making his fellow men and readers aware of themselves and the world that surrounds them. He wants to reach us on a number of different levels. He wants to reach his readers on a spiritual, emotional, and intellectual level. He wants to wake up his fellow readers and ignite their consciousness. He does this by focusing on trends and beliefs that he finds in Concord in his time, that ironically are very telling of our time. Thoreau focuses on the mainstream idea of the â€Å"American Dream† and openly criticizes it and its impact on society. Thoreau tells us that the less we have the better off we will be. He tells the audience that wealth only hinders one as a person because it traps that person into a sort of inverse ownership. For example, he begins talking about shelter. Thoreau recognizes that a person needs shelter and so they must seek a shelter that requires the least amount of work and time, so that you leave yourself time for other things like reading, thinking, or doing whatever it is that makes you happy. In one statement Thoreau says â€Å"Most men appear never to have considered what a house is, and are actually though needlessly poor all their lives because they think that they must have such a one as their neighbors have.† Henry David makes a point of laying before his readers several levels that he wants his readers to think about. These levels include intellectual, spiritual, and emotional levels. In dealing with the intellectual level, Thoreau talks about how he economizes his time so that he has plenty of it to spend on thinking and writing. The spiritual level does not concern God really, but rather making a connection with oneself and the physical world around that person, whether it is with human interaction or with Nature. The emotional level Thoreau talks about deals mostly with coming to terms with oneself and bel... Free Essays on Henry David Thoreau And â€Å"Walden† Free Essays on Henry David Thoreau And â€Å"Walden† Henry David Thoreau writes â€Å"Walden† with the intention of arousing emotion and making his fellow men and readers aware of themselves and the world that surrounds them. He wants to reach us on a number of different levels. He wants to reach his readers on a spiritual, emotional, and intellectual level. He wants to wake up his fellow readers and ignite their consciousness. He does this by focusing on trends and beliefs that he finds in Concord in his time, that ironically are very telling of our time. Thoreau focuses on the mainstream idea of the â€Å"American Dream† and openly criticizes it and its impact on society. Thoreau tells us that the less we have the better off we will be. He tells the audience that wealth only hinders one as a person because it traps that person into a sort of inverse ownership. For example, he begins talking about shelter. Thoreau recognizes that a person needs shelter and so they must seek a shelter that requires the least amount of work and time, so that you leave yourself time for other things like reading, thinking, or doing whatever it is that makes you happy. In one statement Thoreau says â€Å"Most men appear never to have considered what a house is, and are actually though needlessly poor all their lives because they think that they must have such a one as their neighbors have.† Henry David makes a point of laying before his readers several levels that he wants his readers to think about. These levels include intellectual, spiritual, and emotional levels. In dealing with the intellectual level, Thoreau talks about how he economizes his time so that he has plenty of it to spend on thinking and writing. The spiritual level does not concern God really, but rather making a connection with oneself and the physical world around that person, whether it is with human interaction or with Nature. The emotional level Thoreau talks about deals mostly with coming to terms with oneself and bel...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How To Quickly Build Social Media Proposals That Win Clients

How To Quickly Build Social Media Proposals That Win Clients Social media agencies, freelancers, and consultants need clients to survive. It takes a steady influx of new customers to keep the lights on. That’s especially true if your clients tend to come and go on a project-by-project basis. Landing clients isn’t easy, though. You have competition gunning for the same business. Your website is likely optimized to attract new leads, but  thats only half the battle. Once youve met with a lead, youll still need to convince them youre the best choice for their social media marketing budget. Well-written social media proposals are key to closing deals. If you’re a writer or marketer, your sales team probably needs your help writing those proposals, too. If you’re working solo, you might need to show why you’re a better option than another freelancer or consultant. Why Would You Need To Build A Social Media Proposal? Clients want to know what you can do for them before they hand over their credit cards. They might hear about you first through your website, at a conference, or by word of mouth. Once you’ve hooked their interest and started discussing your future working together, they’ll need a tangible agreement in writing. Your stakeholders want to know exactly what you’ll do, and they’ll want something they can show their boss to show you’re worth the money. This is where strong proposals become invaluable. They’re a key tool for  showing why you’re the best choice. TIP: Download the free template below to put the advice in this post to use.How To Quickly Build Social Media Proposals That Win Clients (Free Template)Keep Organized With For Agencies Shameless plg: we're pretty excited about our recently launched agency plans. Now, it's easier than ever to manage all your clients on one platform (and you'll be reeling 'em in like crazy once you're done with this post). Looking for more details? Check 'em out here. What Do Successful Social Media Proposals Need To Include? Your proposal needs to show your prospect how you can benefit their business. It’s not personal, but they don’t care about you. They care about what you can do for them. Keep your client front and center while covering each of the following: What are you going to do. You know you’re not just going to post pretty pictures on Facebook. Make sure your client knows that too. How are you going to do it?  Which tactics and methodologies will you use to achieve Who’s going to do the work?  Which of your team members will be working on the account? Why does this all benefit your client, anyway?  How is their business going to be transformed as a result of working with you? How much is this is all going to cost? If you’re good,  your services probably don’t come cheap. Show why you’re worth it, and clients will be much more willing to sign. Recommended Reading: This Is How To Write For Social Media To Create The Best Posts How To Build An Awesome Social Media Proposal Step-By-Step Next, let’s look at how to build a proposal. This should take a little bit of time to complete. You want the document you deliver to be detailed, polished, and well-planned. Start By Establishing Goals, Metrics, And Objectives Your prospective client wants to know how your work will benefit their business. Logically, it makes sense to start with goals. These will be the endpoints you work toward. Use the SMART Methodology You may have heard us mention SMART goals  on the blog (or elsewhere). If you’re unfamiliar, that’s okay. The SMART methodology provides a simple framework for effective goal setting. Set Business Goals For Your Client Next, outline tangible business goals. This could include: Generating leads Raising brand awareness and cultivate brand loyalty Increasing sales and revenue These specific goals will depend on your prospect’s business needs. You should have some idea what these are after your initial discussions with them. Determine Metrics You’ll Monitor In order to reach your goals, you’ll need to determine which metrics matter. Applying the right data will help you know if you’re succeeding, and prove it to your client. Traffic: How much traffic are you sending to your website? This is often key for driving leads. Follower Growth: The more followers, the better. However, it’s important to make sure you’re attracting the right followers (meaning, followers who fit the client’s desired, target audience). Engagement: You don’t want to bore your audience. If people like your social media content, they’ll interact with it. Reach: Sometimes, just getting your message in front of people is enough to influence positive business outcomes. This measures how many people see a post, even if they don’t engage with it. Conversions: Driving conversions from organic social media isn’t always easy. â€Å"Isn’t always easy† doesn’t mean â€Å"isn’t possible† though, and it may well be important to your client that you know how to turn social media into a revenue or lead generating machine. Recommended Reading: How To Track Your Marketing Objectives To Focus On Success Be Intentional About Channel Selection While we’re discussing social media proposals, we need to be clear that the spectrum of social media is broad. Depending on your potential client, some channels may make sense more than others. Be sure to tailor your proposal to networks that: Your client is already on. Your client wants to build a presence on. Platforms you feel your client should be on, but may not have thought of. Be intentional about selecting social media channels for clients.Introduce Your Team Members The most reliable clients don’t just pay for projects. They invest in relationships with your team. They’ll want to know who they’re working with, and what those people are going to be doing. Help them put names to faces in your proposal. Include the following information. Identify Roles What capabilities do you have on your team? Show your prospect that you have the skill sets required to do what they’re asking from you. Here are some common roles: Writers. Your literary ninjas crafting compelling copy that entertains and motivates audiences. Designers. Visual content geniuses that will make your client’s social channels look their best. Strategists. Big picture thinkers that connect the dots between tactics, strategies, and objectives. Analysts. Data wizards that tell you what’s working, why it’s working, and how it’s working. Project managers. Professional cat herders that keep the rest of your team in line and on time. Account managers. Your face to your client. This person is your prospect’s first point of contact for anything they need. Introduce Team Members Knowing a little bit about your team (beyond the work they’ll be doing) can help humanize your agency. Add screenshots and quick bios outlining their interests and passions. Include details about their skill sets. What Services Will You Provide? Anyone can talk about how they’ll â€Å"transform your business† while dropping three-letter acronyms like â€Å"ROI† and "CPC" and whatever else. Actually showing your prospect what you’ll do is more difficult. This is where you need to demonstrate exactly what kinds of skills you’ve got, and what kind of results you can expect to produce. Think â€Å"less talk, more rock.† Writing a proposal? Think 'less talk, more rock.'Some examples might include: Social media content creation Campaign planning Social listening Analytics and measurement How Your Team Will Do It You don’t have to give away all your secrets. However, a client will want to know how you’re going to deliver on your promises. Consider including some of the following items in your proposal: A description of your processes and methodologies. What’s unique about the way you work that helps you deliver better results than your competition? What tools do you use? Using the same tools can be helpful for collaborating with clients. A clear explanation for the specific work you’ll perform. Specific tactics and techniques you’ll use. Why You’ll Do This Work What’s the reason you’re going to do all this work, anyway? Be sure you know what your client’s objectives are. Some possible objectives could include: Increasing brand awareness Community building and engagement Driving leads TIP: Tie specific objectives back into your client's overall business goals. Set Clear Schedules And Timelines You don’t want to leave your client wondering what you’re doing while burning their budget. Let them know when things will be done up front. This includes: Deadlines for projects. Timelines for meetings and check-ins. Time frames to reach performance goals. Recommended Reading: How To Meet Deadlines When You're Sick And Tired Of Missing Them Tips For Setting Deadlines Your client needs to know when to expect work to be completed. It helps with their own planning and makes their life easier. Keep these pointers in mind: Be realistic. Don’t over-promise how fast you can get work done. Be up front about how much time it’s going to take to do a good job. Hold yourself accountable. Once you set a deadline, consider it set in stone. Do whatever you have to in order to meet it. If you were realistic about setting your timeline, you shouldn’t need to pull any all-nighters. Make sure deadlines are agreed upon. This ensures a client can’t try to force your hand to deliver faster than promised. Be firm on your timelines and work hard to meet them. Under-promise and over-deliver. When it comes to deadlines, under-promise and over-deliver.Be Clear About Budgets Going over-budget is stressful for agencies and consultants. It leads to costly write-offs or over-billing your client  (and you should never over-bill anyone, for anything, ever). Neither is good for either side. The best way to avoid problems here is to establish realistic budgets. Tips For Setting Budgets Every team member you add to a project raises the cost. Include only those who are essential. Be smart when planning meetings. They can be a drain on both time and budget if you’re billing for hours spent in meetings, in addition to time spent doing the work. If you’ve selected the right people, to perform the right work, on the right timeline, then budgets should (hopefully) fall in line too. If your client disagrees, then negotiate, or even walk away. You need to arrive at terms that are satisfactory to both sides. Determine Reporting Periods And Deliverables As you work with your client, they’ll expect to see some kind of reporting. This could mean a formal weekly or monthly reporting document showing how your work is performing. Your proposal should note: When to expect reports. What those reports will look like (PowerPoint, Excel, PDF, etc.). What data will be reported on. These should be tied back to your goals and metrics. Simple as that. Recommended Reading: How To Develop A Winning Social Media Content Strategy (Free Template) Manage Everything With For Agencies! So, you've started pitching your proposals and you're winning tons of clients. What comes next? You'll need to manage each of those clients. And with for Agencies, you can keep clients organized without losing your mind. Here's a quick rundown on what our multi-calendar plans have to offer busy agencies and consultants (like you): Manage all your clients in ONE place. Eliminate the need for spreadsheets, email threads, and multiple platforms! Get all your clients under one roof. Make it easy for you, your clients, AND your team to collaborate, manage projects, and get sh*t done. Simplify your team’s workflows and collaboration. With custom integrations, team member approvals, and streamlined communication, you can easily facilitate real time collaboration with your clients, stay on track with project tasks, and execute on projects faster. Customize to fit your needs. is designed for flexibility. And as your clientele grows, so should your calendar. With three tiers of multi-calendar plans, makes it easy to scale your plan to fit your client’s unique needs! Improve client retention with data-driven results. No more warm fuzzies! Prove the value of all your hard work with real data. Utilize ’s most advanced analytics to measure your success and improve client retention†¦.(without all the tedious data collection). Which means you can stop jumping from screen to screen, manage all your clients on ONE platform, and get your agency super organized in the process. Now Go Win More Clients Strong social media proposals help clients visualize a better future for themselves, thanks to your work. Take what you’ve learned here (and use the free template included) and start winning more business.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Spanish literature Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Spanish literature - Assignment Example Fernando is presented as an active military leader who does unnecessary offensives simply because he has the capacity to do so. These are also an illustration of the theme of abuse of power in the story. Fuenteovejuna is also characterized numerous use of rhetorical devices as evident in the play. There are several quotations that showcase these rhetorical devices as outlined in the book. The play has several rhetorical devices that are widely used, most of which include parallelism and antithesis. The storyline dramatizes two separate events which can be viewed as more or less current of each other, but differently related. The Author uses parallelism to express the two different parts of the story. The civil war serves the background while the story of the marriage of Fernando takes a major lead in the storyline. Rhetorical device helps in achieving the different ideologies that are concurrently presented in the story. This subsequent illustration of the personal lives of Isabel and Fernando helps the audience relate the love story told in another story characterized by

Friday, October 18, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility Literature review

Corporate Social Responsibility - Literature review Example This is what is now termed at Corporate Social Responsibility – an organization’s sense of responsibility to society, whether ecological, economical or social. (Schermerhorn 2010) The term ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ was coined way back in 1953 by Howard R Bowen in his book ‘Social Responsibilities of the Businessman’. He may as well be considered the Father of Corporate Social Responsibility. (Mhatre 2010) According to the Financial Times Lexicon, Corporate Social Responsibility is a business approach that delivers benefits in threefold – economic, social and environmental, to all the stakeholders and as a result leads to sustainable development. ( Corporate Social Responsibility covers a gamut of activities ranging from human rights and working conditions to environmental health and development of the economy. While Corporate Social Responsibility was initially just considered a fancy term for generosity, times hav e now changed. Globalization and the ensuing awareness about the deteriorating environment and other social and economic issues around the world have ensured that there is a space for more responsibility that rests with every organization. Whether it is social and economic issues such as poverty and lack of education for children in certain areas of the world or environmental issues such as global warming and the increased carbon footprint, every organization today is now expected to focus on a certain cause and give back to the community. It is not just about generosity or being charitable. It is about a more united world – one wherein organizations are making returns. So why not support those that do not have access to so many privileges? And why not take care of the environment we live in? This is the role that CSR plays today in the daily functioning of an organization. Spreading awareness and the word that there is a need for organizations with power and resources to hel p those who need it, and the environment we live in, for the benefit of one and all. Hay, Stavens and Vietor (2005) summarise the meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility in their book Environmental Protection and the Social Responsibility of Firms. According to them, CSR is â€Å"a consistent pattern in which private firms do more than they are required to, based on laws and regulations governing the environment, worker safety and health and financial contributions in the communities in which they operate.† (Hay, Stavens and Vietor 2005) This definition is perhaps the most comprehensive, expressing not only the variety of functions of Corporate Social Responsibility but also stressing on the fact that the organizations do more than they are just required to. Lord Holme and Richard Watts further adds to this perspective by stating, â€Å"Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large† (qtd. in Baker 2005). CSR has become a very integral part of every organization large or small, private or public. Schilling and Steensma (2001) is of the opinion that it shows to the public that the organizations are not just ruthless entities that function to make a fatter bottom line, but that they are also humans at the end of the day who care about others and the environmen

Utopian Societies Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Utopian Societies - Research Paper Example It is a fact that many people from all over the world were staying in America without facing much discrimination before the 9/11 incident. But after 9/11, some people are facing stiff challenges in America, especially the Muslim population. In other words, circumstances preventing the formation of an ideal society everywhere. The concept of Utopian society has come from Plato’s republic. It is a conceptual society which is free from aggression, war, hate, and crime and work for the establishing peace, law and order in every aspect of social life. The major objective of Utopian society is to work for the human betterment. Moreover utopian society ensures equality and stress free life of all human beings in every aspect of human life. The major drawback of utopian society was their handling of outsiders. While they were keeping all the ethical standards within the society, they were not so in treating the outsiders. This paper briefly analyses the major concepts of utopian society in order to find an answer to the question whether this concept is good or evil in the contemporary world. Serra (2010) has mentioned that the Utopian society would be free of ignorant bully types, perverts, dishonest slugs who have no conscience, those with greed, hostilities, and the list goes on. No one sees color or nationality. No bad racial feelings, just good people enjoying each other’s company (Serra). In a utopian society, people enjoys freedom, liberty and equality in all the respects. In other words, the equality in all sense, prevent the chances of any problems in a utopian society. Laws and governments have no role at all in a utopian society. People live at their will in such a society. Utopian society helps a person to lead a free life in its all sense. The words, Crime and punishments are not in the dictionary of a utopian society. In a utopian society, the government holds only the secondary position. Society has the upper hand compared

Virtual Reality Endangers Our Future Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Virtual Reality Endangers Our Future - Essay Example Virtual reality could be considered dangerous, as this simulation could cause decline of ethics and traditional values, as well as transition to absolutely new ways of life, where the existence of people will lose its entire meaning. The technology itself has been a source of great use in the recent world as can be clearly witnessed in the use of the technology in different realms of life. Virtual reality is of great significance in the spheres of medicine, business, law, and design. Doctors are starting to use virtual reality devices for conducting medical operations, as well as creating suitable conditions for the faster recovery processes (for instance, for patients with mental disorders). Thus, virtual reality assists in the development of medical industry and moves it to a new level. Besides, this equipment gives an opportunity to reconstruct crimes, hold conferences, or model buildings. Virtual reality becomes a new dawn for entertainment industry, especially in the field of video-games and 3D movies. Headsets could improve realistic and engaging effects to plunge the player or spectator into an artificial environment. Therefore, virtual reality devices are crucially important in the advancement of technol ogy and scientific progress, and its importance should not be overestimated. The other benefit of the concept revolving around virtual reality is the development of the Internet as a new platform which will constitute a major part of the online networking centers. Nowadays, social media has already replaced real-life communication by creating a platform through which people can easily carry out their tasks by using the internet. The existence of public institution websites and online stores abolish the need to leave one’s house. Virtual reality devices expand the borders of the Internet, breaking the fourth wall between a user and the entire system. The borders of

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Theoretical concepts of accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Theoretical concepts of accounting - Essay Example Proponents of free market approach have also supported a wait and see approach in relation to economic and financial changes taking place all over the world. In fact, the free market proponents reject the idea of intervention by governments for the sake of adjusting the distracted economy, and have based their arguments on the claim that demand and supply forces interact to ultimately bring stability in the distracted economic conditions (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). However, malpractices of those charged with the governance and misuse of authority often overrun the expected balances to be attained in a free market model through demand and supply interaction (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). One of the most relevant and quotable example in this regard can be of the Enron Scandal, which obviously had nothing to do with the free market model and demand and supply forces, but government intervention to safeguard the interests of general public throu gh Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX) was deemed appropriate (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan).... , under free market approach, shall be opted to enhance the role of market forces and when needed, government intervention, whether in the form of accounting regulations or other regulatory frameworks shall be introduced to ensure that no deviation from the objective of benefiting society and corporate entities takes place (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). Certainly, after the recent experiences of financial crisis and the increasing debate regarding the lack of ethical practices towards corporate governance and corporate social responsibility, the need to bring regulatory measures have been felt as never before (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). Before going into the details of differences between the assumptions underlying the capital market research and behavioural research, it is pertinent to understand what capital market research and behavioural research implies (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). The capital market research evalu ates the overall impact of financial reporting on investors only; whereas behavioural research takes into consideration the responses towards financial reporting by separate individuals, which is reflected by the decisions made by different users of financial statements. The assumptions for each of the research type are based on the nature of these researches (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). As for instance, under capital market research it is assumed that investors are the most important stakeholders who take into consideration the financial reporting by business entities to base their decisions upon them. On the other hand, the assumptions used under behavioural research are entirely contrasting to the capital market research, as it is assumed that every stakeholder,

Organization in the Freight Forwarding Industry Research Proposal

Organization in the Freight Forwarding Industry - Research Proposal Example Organizational change or change, in general, can be defined from a variety of points depending on the perception of the user. An individual or employee in an organization may look at a new post or position as a change while higher management may feel it is unimportant. (Cao et al, 2000, p187). Changes viewed also by management may also not be looked upon as change by outsiders like competitors or suppliers. This has led to the categorizing of change in various ways, some of which include strategic and non-strategic change, incremental and radical change, changes of identity, co-ordination and control, planned and emergent change, change in terms of scale, human-centered change in terms of individual, group and inter-group or organizational level, quantum change and so on. (Cao et al, 2000, p187; Todnem, 2005, p372). Innovation is a management change process. There is a growing number of existing literature on value drivers, core competencies, and success factors in an organization. E .g. Sim & Ali (1998) compared the attributes and performance of firms from developed countries with those from developing countries within the same industry, Park & Russo (1996) focus on the differential impact of firm's size to its success and parents shareholders value, Hagan (1998) and Prahalad & Hamel (1990) focus on the core competence of an organisation, however, none of these studies has addressed the qualities and salient features with respect to a particular organisation. Under today's fierce competition it has become increasingly necessary to probe into some of the puzzling questions of what factors create an organization dominance and success in one industry while others continue to lag behind. This is the primary question this paper seeks to address with respect to Innovation and cross-functional team. The main research question, therefore, is to find out how innovation by cross-functional team creates a strategic breakthrough in companies. Thus this paper has as the mai n research objective to evaluate and analyze innovation by the cross-functional team as a competitive breakthrough in companies. The paper draw samples from the freight forwarding and transportation industry. 1.2Purpose and Objectives of Study The main objective of this piece of work will be to analyze the effect of innovation with a cross-functional team on the activities of the organization.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Theoretical concepts of accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Theoretical concepts of accounting - Essay Example Proponents of free market approach have also supported a wait and see approach in relation to economic and financial changes taking place all over the world. In fact, the free market proponents reject the idea of intervention by governments for the sake of adjusting the distracted economy, and have based their arguments on the claim that demand and supply forces interact to ultimately bring stability in the distracted economic conditions (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). However, malpractices of those charged with the governance and misuse of authority often overrun the expected balances to be attained in a free market model through demand and supply interaction (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). One of the most relevant and quotable example in this regard can be of the Enron Scandal, which obviously had nothing to do with the free market model and demand and supply forces, but government intervention to safeguard the interests of general public throu gh Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX) was deemed appropriate (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan).... , under free market approach, shall be opted to enhance the role of market forces and when needed, government intervention, whether in the form of accounting regulations or other regulatory frameworks shall be introduced to ensure that no deviation from the objective of benefiting society and corporate entities takes place (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). Certainly, after the recent experiences of financial crisis and the increasing debate regarding the lack of ethical practices towards corporate governance and corporate social responsibility, the need to bring regulatory measures have been felt as never before (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). Before going into the details of differences between the assumptions underlying the capital market research and behavioural research, it is pertinent to understand what capital market research and behavioural research implies (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). The capital market research evalu ates the overall impact of financial reporting on investors only; whereas behavioural research takes into consideration the responses towards financial reporting by separate individuals, which is reflected by the decisions made by different users of financial statements. The assumptions for each of the research type are based on the nature of these researches (Deegan and Unerman; Rankin, Stanton and McGowan). As for instance, under capital market research it is assumed that investors are the most important stakeholders who take into consideration the financial reporting by business entities to base their decisions upon them. On the other hand, the assumptions used under behavioural research are entirely contrasting to the capital market research, as it is assumed that every stakeholder,

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Economic Theories Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Economic Theories - Essay Example Keynes was the one who completely refuted Say's Law, so much so that he said that the opposite of the law was actually the truth. In this paper we will analyze the criticisms of all these three major economists in comparison with each other. J.B.Say believed that production causes consumption, that is, production is the main source of consumption. What, and how much a person demands depended on the income produced by their own acts of production. Say says that a person pays for goods and services through goods and services. This means that the demand for a commodity is a function of the supply of other commodities. Say's Law of Markets explains the process through which supplies in general are converted into demands in general. Say found that supply will be equal to the demand for other goods. For him, since demand results from the production of products, so there can never be excess supply over demand. Thus, Say believes that there cannot be general overproduction in an economy. He did say that it was possible to have a surplus or shortage of a particular commodity, but these gluts of production were not a result of general overproduction, but instead they were a result of overproduction of a certain good in comparison with other goods which were under produced. So he accepted that there could be short term gluts in an economy, but that it will right itself automatically through the mechanism of prices. He wrote in his "Treatise on Political Economy": "Garnier, in the notes he joins to his excellent translation of Adam Smith, says that in the old nations of Europe, where capital has accumulated for centuries, a superabundance of annual product would be an obstruction to circulation were it not absorbed by a proportionate consumption. I can see that circulation can be obstructed by superabundance of certain products, but that can only be a passing evil, for people will soon cease to engage in a line of production whose products exceed the need for them and lose their value, and they will turn to the production of goods more in demand. But I do not see how the products of a nation in general can ever be too abundant, for each such product provides the means for purchasing another." (Translated by Palmer 1997, p.76, Cottrell 1997, p.2) Thus, Say implies that an adjustment in production, prices or marketing strategies would lead to the removal of disequilibrium - arising from overproduction in a particular type of product - in a free market economy. This is the basic proposition of Say's Law of Markets. Say also believed that savings are beneficial for the economy and are a means of future growth. So they are even better than consumption. He said that savings are led immediately into investments in pursuit of profits, so there would be no deficiency of income, production or consumption. This means that income is always spent either on satisfying current wants through consumption or satisfying future wants through savings accumulation. Hence the market would automatically return to equilibrium even if some income is not devoted to consumption but rather goes to investment. So, general under consumption, just like general over production of a product was not possible, ever. He made an implicit assumption that prices and wages should be flexible. (Anderson) For him money was only a medium of exchange and not a store of wealth. As an inference, Say denounced government interference with the pricing

Monday, October 14, 2019

Review Of Cruise Tourism And Malaysia Tourism Essay

Review Of Cruise Tourism And Malaysia Tourism Essay Cruise Tourism is one of the major growth areas of world tourism Peisley, 1992; Hobson, 1993; Cruise Lines International Association, 1995. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit: There seems little doubt that, by the turn of the century, cruising will be firmly established as one of the worlds major tourism industries with significant markets in North America, the UK, Europe and Asia. The total number of annual passengers will have reached 8 million plus Cruising is the fastest-growing sector of the international holiday scene (The Passenger Shipping Association, 2003). Cruise tourism can be defined as the use of ships for pleasure cruising and not merely for transportation (UNWTO, 1997). Ocean and coastal cruise tourism is unique in the manner in which it provides a combination of transportation, accommodation, entertainment, retail and destination services. Cruise liners can be regarded as floating resort facilities, which have the major advantage of seasonal repositioning. From its predominantly Caribbean base, cruise tourism has spread across the world, increasing ports of call in all regions. As well as this, river and canal cruising has grown rapidly, particularly in Europe and China. The cruise industry is growing, expanding and accessing new markets by, in part, bringing into reach a diversity of popular and successful destinations that are new for cruise tourism, by exploiting previously under-utilised ports (Younger, 2003). 2.1.1 The cruise industry The growth of the cruise market throughout the world, and perhaps more notably in the United Kingdom (UK) has been one of the most remarkable phenomena of the 1990s (Wild Dearing, 2000). The cruise industry is the fastest growing segment of the travel industry achieving more than 2,100 percent growth since 1970, when an estimated 500,000 people took a cruise. Industry estimates are that 13.5 million people took a cruise vacation in 2009, with a total of 14.3 million passengers forecasted to sail in 2010. (Cruise Lines International Association [CLIA], 2010). In early 2001, 64 new and larger capacity ships were in production, expanding passenger capacities by 35%. More than 50% of these ships are dedicated to the United States tourism market and are now operating throughout the Caribbean (Sparrow, 2004). The cruise industrys growth is also reflected in its expanding guest capacity. Nearly 40 new ships were built in the 1980s and during the 1990s, nearly 80 new ships debuted. By the end of 2009, over 100 new ships were introduced since 2000, with 12 new vessels on the way for 2010. (CLIA, 2010) These new vessels carry more passengers, more crew, generate more waste and consume more goods and services. 2.2 Theoretical Framework According to Weaver and Oppermann (2000), tourism is a complex phenomenon involving many actors and interactive factors. Some of the actors are tourists, tour operators, cruise lines and airlines. To be able to understand the complicated nature of the tourism industry, a system based approach is suitable. Leipers tourism model can be used as the theoretical framework as it views tourism as a form of a system in which there is an operational structure built up of interacting components. Leiper who was an early supporter of the adoption of a systems approach towards understanding tourism defined tourism as: . . . the system involving the discretionary travel and temporary stay of persons away from their usual place of residence for one or more nights, excepting tours made for the primary purpose of earning remuneration from points en route. The elements of the system are tourists, generating regions, transit routes, destination regions and a tourist industry. These five elements are arranged in spatial and functional connections. Having the characteristics of an open system, the organisation of five elements operates within broader environments: physical, cultural, social, economic, political, technological with which it interacts. The components of the tourism system are shown in the model below (fig 1.1). This whole tourism system approach helps to organise our knowledge about tourism and its relationship with cruises. Leipers approach was to try and understand destinations, generating areas, transit zones, the environment and flows within the context of a wider tourism system rather than seeing them as separate independent entities. In the model there are three interactive components: (i) the tourism generating region, (ii) the destination region and (iii) transit routes which link the two regions. It is evident that transport forms an integral part of the tourism system by linking the tourist generating and destination regions together. Collier (1994) classifies tourism transport on several bases (e.g. public or private sector transport, water/land/air transport; domestic and international transport and mode of transport). Cruise tourism is considered as a system in which cruisers and operators are major actors. The tourism-generating region and the destination region are linked together through cruising which is also a tourism product. This makes cruise ships a unique form of tourism transport. People go on a cruise more than they go to a place. And yet their major competition is not other forms of transport but real places. As Morrison et al. (1996: 15) put it: Instead of competing with the airlines, the cruise lines have become their partners and now compete with destinations, resorts, and other vacation alternatives. The cruise ship itself has become a floating resort providing the maximum possible leisure and entertainment facilities. However Leipers model has been criticized for being simplistic (Prosser, 1998). Prosser provided a more detailed model that, he claimed, represents more effectively the inner complexities of the tourism environment. 2.3 SWOT analysis for Mauritius SWOT is an acronym where the letters stand for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is a commonly used analytical tool in business environments that has become firmly established in the literature of strategic management (Evans, et al. 2003). A SWOT analysis is a useful way of assessing the situation that a destination faces in its effort to develop cruise tourism. . According to Weihrich (1982), the SWOT analysis is the process of analysing organisations and their environments based on their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This includes the environmental analysis, the process of scanning the business environment for threats and opportunities, which is considered as external factors, and the organisational analysis, the process of analysing a firms strengths and weaknesses as internal factors. Internal factors Strengths Weaknesses A strategically located port in the Indian Ocean Capacity and Infrastructure constraints- too few berths Safe and wonderful tourism destination Cyclonic period during the months of November to May Pleasant climate practically whole year round Nautical constraints- For many big cruise vessels at the same time Variety of land-based and water-based attractions Poor maintenance of beaches and attractions A great variety of cultures Low awareness in the market about cruise tourism in Mauritius Relatively good basic structures(hospitals, roads) and a good transport system Mauritius considered as an expensive destination and not within the reach of many World class quality services by Tour Operators, Hotels, Restaurants, and Travel Agents. Poor service at the port and untrained staff Minimum formalities on arrival of cruise vessels Poor road links to certain location and place of interest Lack of industry cohesion No strategic plan at MPA and MOT level External Factors Opportunities Threats Estimated two million tourists by the year 2015 Seasonality of the industry Brand name- Ile Maurice un plaisir Threats by terrorists and Somalian Pirates The cruise market Potential is strong for Regional/ International growth Competition from other exotic tourism destinations Improvement of physical infrastructure including adequate parking facilities at places of interest and other recreational areas Likely increase in oil prices affecting cost of travel Political stability of market of origin Economic uncertainty- late bookings and close-to-home cruises to avoid expense on flying Air network expansion facilitating Fly-cruise concept Strong growth of European demand (German, French and Spanish markets) 2.4 Sustainable development issues of cruise tourism: Although a relatively new phenomenon, tourism has become one of the worlds largest industries in recent years. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO, 2004), sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. In 2008, International tourism arrival reached there were 922 million worldwide, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. (WTO) Given its total significance, it is not surprising that the tourism industry has a substantial environmental impact. In particular, tourism development is associated with environmental problems like deforestation, soil or beach erosion, and coral ecosystem destruction. Since tourism development also tends to result in rapid urbanization, it can contribute to such problems as increased air and water pollution, as well as inadequate solid waste management (Baver and Lynch 2006, 5). The scale and gravity of these impacts tend to be amplified in the Caribbean, where the environment comprises some of the most fragile ecosystems on earth, including beaches, coral reefs, and tropical forests (Lynch 2006, 158). When sustainable tourism has been applied to the industry, more emphasis has been given to tourisms effects upon the environment and economy, rather than to factors related to its effect on communities (Hardy et al, 2002: 491) Cruise tourism is currently going through a period of revival with new vessels being launched and sailing to ever more exotic places. Criticisms Hunter (1997) argues that different interpretations of sustainable tourism are appropriate urder different circumstances. The study of sustainable tourism should not be a rigid framework, but an adaptive paradigm which legitimizes a variety of approaches according to specific circtimstances (Htinter, 1997: 851).

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Ana Castillo Seduced by Natssja Kinski Critique :: essays research papers

A quick read of Ana Castillo’s poetry will provide a reader with much knowledge of the style she uses. The style used in â€Å"Seduced by Natassja Kinski† and â€Å"El Chicle† is conveyed vividly. A key ingredient to Castillo’s style is imagery. Castillo uses imagery to portray the environment, object movements, emotions, and everything else that is of utmost importance. Also important to Castillo’s style is her choice of words. Castillo refers to all words in poems as gold. Every word must be picked and placed with all the care in the world. Along with her imagery and choice of words, metaphors, poetry form, and flow are essential to creating the two featured poems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After many reads of both â€Å"Seduced by Natassja Kinski† and â€Å"El Chicle† I have been able to visually interpret the worlds created in both poems. â€Å"El Chicle† is all about imagery, however, â€Å"Seduced by Natassja Kinski† also contains valuable imagery. In â€Å"El Chicle†, Castillo portrays a piece of bubble gum falling out of Mi’jo’s mouth into her hair; she cuts her hair; the piece of gum falls onto the back of a dragonfly which flys to its death as a turtle eats it whole. Now, I haven’t been able to really determine what this is exactly referring to, but the imagery created here is as vivid, or more vivid than if I were to witness this in real life. This imagery is as intriguing as the following quote from â€Å"Seduced by Natassja Kinski†: â€Å"And we dance, I am a strawberry, ripened and bursting, devoured, and she has won.† With deep visions I have been able to recreate this scene of Kinski devouring the world’s most orgasmic strawberry. An orgasmic strawberry is what I came up with if I were to describe the scene in few words.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In few words I said â€Å"orgasmic strawberry† which defines the previous quote. Now, the technique I have just done is what Castillo has done throughout her life’s work with poetry. In â€Å"Seduced by Natassja Kinski† and â€Å"El Chicle† I have found many words that are more suiting than the rest of the entire deck of English words. For example, Castillo uses the adjective â€Å"fleshy† to describe a strawberry. This word creates a picture of the strawberry while relating the strawberry to a beautiful girl. Also, when Castillo relates herself to an atom; she lives in the town, but the girls are taking her out for a night and showing her a good time.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Israel and Syria :: Threats to World Peace

Next week's peace talks between Israel and Syria are expected to focus on the future of the Golan Heights -- strategic land that Israel captured from its Arab neighbor in the 1967 Middle East war. Israeli and Syrian leaders agreed Wednesday to resume their negotiations, which broke off in 1996. The talks are to pick up where they left off nearly four years ago. Analysts say Syria and Israel were close to agreement then. During the renewed negotiations, Israel is expected to insist on security guarantees in its northern territory in exchange for the return of the Golan Heights. Syria might be called upon to demilitarize the area to ensure that goal. U.S. President Bill Clinton announced the resumption of talks at a news conference Wednesday. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk al-Sharaa plan to meet for two days next week in Washington, before returning to the Middle East for more negotiations. The breakthrough came after U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright met Tuesday with Syrian President Hafez Assad in the Syrian capital of Damascus; she met Wednesday with Barak in Jerusalem. VIDEO Watch U.S. President Bill Clinton give his opening remarks at his Wednesday news conference (December 8) QuickTime Play Real 28K 80K Windows Media 28K 80K AUDIO Listen to Clinton's statement on the Mideast peace process 2.5 MB/4.07 min. AIFF or WAV sound ALSO Albright takes work break to stroll in Manger Square MESSAGE BOARD Mideast peace Major issues in dispute between Israel and Syria: How much territory Israel will relinguish. Syria demands all of the Golan Heights, a high ground overlooking northeastern Israel that Syria lost in the 1967 war. Syria also is seeking territory stretching to the Sea of Galilee. Whether Syria will agree to normal diplomatic relations with Israel, including an exchange of ambassadors. The timing of the Israel pullback and whether it will be undertaken in stages. Security arrangements after a pullback. The Golan Heights have served as a protective barrier for Israel and it is seeking substitute arrangements, including an early warning system of imminent attack. From The Associated Press . . .

Friday, October 11, 2019

Goodyear: Aquatred

The year is 1992 and Goodyear is planning to release its new tire the Aquatred. The new tire is a premium tire which reroutes water away from the main tread making it have superior traction in wet conditions. With the launch of this tire coming up Goodyear has some challenges they need to figure out, where should they price the Aquatred? Which type of distribution model should they use? To figure this out we will first need to discuss the existing market and modes of distribution. The tire market can be segmented in three ways. The first way is by tire, either by performance or broad-line tires. Performance tires were more expensive but gave the consumer more traction and control. Another segment was by either OEM or replacement tires. OEM tires are those which are included when a new car was purchased and a passenger replacement tire are those which are bought after initial tires are worn out. The last segment was by major brand which was about 36% of the market, smaller brand which had 24% or by a private label which held a 40% share. Goodyear was a major brand and made about 65% of its revenues off of replacement tire sales, with the rest coming from OEM sales. The US replacement tire market in 1991 accounted for 8. 6 billion dollars. The Aquatred tire is to be launched in the replacement market because it would take a few years to develop a contract for OEM sales. This would be too long of a wait because competitors had their own versions of the Aquatred due to release sometime within beginning 1993. Replacement tires were distributed to consumers through a variety of ways. One way was when the tire manufacturer sold direct to large chains and wholesalers who resold the tires at retail, car dealers and other secondary outlets; this accounted for 40% of Goodyear’s sales. Another 10% of sales were sold to large chains and wholesalers who sold only to secondary outlets and did not sell retail. The rest of Goodyear’s sales were from retail outlets which made up 50% of replacement tire sales. Traditional retail outlets for replacement tires consisted of six different channels: Garage/service stations – offers auto services, sold both private and brand label tires, sales have been in decline recently due to lower cost higher volume outlets. Small independent tire dealers – have one or two locations where they sell and install tires while also offering auto services. Offer a variety of brands but make the most revenue off of private labels Manufacturer-owned outlets – owned and operated by tire manufacturers, offered one brand of tire and performed auto services. Warehouse clubs – low price with limited tire brand offering, did not offer auto services just tire installations. Mass merchandisers – retail chains which sell tires as well as other auto merchandise. Carried multiple brands and offered auto services. Large tire chains – usually had 30 – 100 outlets within one geographic region, carried many major brands and private label tires, they were low price – high volume outlets. Goodyear did not distribute its tires through all of these retail options. They only distributed their tires through independent dealers, manufacturer owned outlets and directly to government agencies. Their direct competition Michelin sold its tires mainly through large chain dealers and warehouse clubs. The small independent dealers accounted for 50% of Goodyear replacement tire sales revenues while manufacturer owned outlets accounted for about 30%. There were 4400 small independent dealers which carried the Goodyear brand, however only 2500 of these dealers were considered active by Goodyear which was only about 57%. To be considered active a small dealer must generate consistent levels of sales, maintain major Goodyear retail displays and offer the full line of Goodyear tires. A reason why only 57% of small independent dealers were active is because many of them were unhappy about how Goodyear owned about 1300 manufacturer outlets throughout the country. This gave some of the small independent dealers a disincentive to push Goodyear products. We can say this because the margins that small independent dealers averaged 28% on Goodyear tires, 25% for other major brands and about 20% for private label tires. Another reason why small independent dealers were unsatisfied was because wholesalers and large chain stores would occasionally acquire Goodyear tires and then advertise Goodyear merchandise even when they did not have any in stock. They would then sell the consumer another tire, this tactic was called the bait and switch and it found Sears on the wrong end of two law suits from Goodyear. Even though the margins for tires for independent dealers were at a pretty reasonable level they derived almost half of their revenues from auto services such as oil changes, tire rotations and minor engine work. This was because consumers buying tires often referred to it as a grudge purchase. The â€Å"average price† of a Goodyear tire in a small independent dealer was about $75 per tire. However, Goodyear and the entire industry found that its sales were much higher during promotional periods. This led to the over promotion of tires and now has left the consumers expecting some sort of deal when tires are purchased. Many of these promotions were often something like buy three tires and the fourth is free. In this case that means that 4 tires were really being sold for about $56 ($225/4 tires) compared to the $75 average. This type of marketing structure led to the expectation by consumers that they should be getting a deal on the tires that they purchase. Another sale tactic which sold tires to the consumers was a manufacturer guarantee, which would often guarantee the life of the tire between 60,000 and 80,000 miles. This made consumers feel as though they were getting a quality tire at a reasonable price, which in hindsight pushed the independent dealers to sell more of the inexpensive tires that came with the manufacturer guarantees. The Goodyear Aquatred tire was going to be released in 1992, and Goodyear needed to know how to price it and which channels to distribute it through. The Aquatred tire was to be positioned at the top of the line broad-line segment. This was because the Aquatred differentiated itself by having the â€Å"Aquachannel† which was a deep grove down the middle of the tire and channeled the water out from underneath it to avoid hydroplaning. When tested in wet conditions this tire stopped cars going at 55 miles per hour a whole two car lengths shorter than its all season tire competition. Goodyear was claiming that when the Aquatred was 50% worn it was still as effective as a brand new all season tire. The Aquatred tire was to be released with a Goodyear 60,000 mile guarantee. Goodyear’s suggested retail price of the Aquatred was $89. 95 for a black sidewall and $93. 95 with a white sidewall. Analysis – Where distribution lays right now for Goodyear, mainly small independent dealers and manufacturer outlets, it would be within their best interests to lower the price of the Aquatred tire. I know that this is a premium tire, but at the current retail prices that Goodyear is suggesting they would be positioning themselves out of their market place. Their pricing of the Aquatred tire is about $35 ($56 compared to $90) higher than a tire with a similar mileage warranty. I would lower the price of the Aquatred to somewhere in the $80 – $87 range so when there was a promotion it would reflect $60 – $65 range. This would show the consumer that the extra money is for the quality of the tire and for the enhanced safety of the passengers. Another key concept would to under no circumstances sell to wholesalers and large chains, this trend is continuing to eat away at their core channel of distribution (small independent dealers). Another thing I would do is make the manufacturer outlets stock only the full lines of Goodyear at their stores when there weren’t any small independent dealers within the region. Otherwise, I would use the manufacturer outlets to sell more of the Goodyear niche products to try not to directly compete with the nearby small independent dealers. Another way I would try to please Goodyear’s small independent dealers would be to have the manufacturer outlet’s retail prices be higher but still competitive with them. I believe that this tactic will raise the amount of active independent dealers for Goodyear up from a lowly 57%. To help the sales of the independent dealers I would run an advertising campaign that emphasized the safety of the Aquatred in harsh conditions. With the main objective of the ad saying something like ‘isn’t your family’s enhanced security worth an extra $20? ’ I would also commit more ads to the southern half of the US where there would be no need for all season tires, and more of a market for the Aquatred. I would still advertise in the north of the country, there is just more value in the south due to the lack of snow. These are my recommendations for Goodyear.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Paper Evaluation

How to Read a Scientific Paper BIOC/MCB 568 — Fall 2010 John W. Little and Roy Parker–University of Arizona Back to 568 home page Translation into Belorussian The main purpose of a scientific paper is to report new results, usually experimental, and to relate these results to previous knowledge in the field. Papers are one of the most important ways that we communicate with one another. In understanding how to read a paper, we need to start at the beginning with a few preliminaries. We then address the main questions that will enable you to understand and evaluate the paper. . How are papers organized? 2. How do I prepare to read a paper, particularly in an area not so familiar to me? 3. What difficulties can I expect? 4. How do I understand and evaluate  the contents of the paper? 1. Organization of a paper In most scientific journals, scientific papers follow a standard format. They are divided into several sections, and each section serves a specific purpose in the paper. We first describe the standard format, then some variations on that format. A paper begins with a short  Summary  or  Abstract. Generally, it gives a brief background to the topic; describes concisely the major findings of the paper; and relates these findings to the field of study. As will be seen, this logical order is also that of the paper as a whole. The next section of the paper is the  Introduction. In many journals this section is not given a title. As its name implies, this section presents the background knowledge necessary for the reader to understand why the findings of the paper are an advance on the knowledge in the field. Typically, the Introduction describes first the accepted state of knowledge in a specialized field; then it focuses more specifically on a particular aspect, usually describing a finding or set of findings that led directly to the work described in the paper. If the authors are testing a hypothesis, the source of that hypothesis is spelled out, findings are given with which it is consistent, and one or more predictions are given. In many papers, one or several major conclusions of the paper are presented at the end of this section, so that the reader knows the major answers to the questions just posed. Papers more descriptive or comparative in nature may begin with an introduction to an area which interests the authors, or the need for a broader database. The next section of most papers is the  Materials and Methods. In some journals this section is the last one. Its purpose is to describe the materials used in the experiments and the methods by which the experiments were carried out. In principle, this description should be detailed enough to allow other researchers to replicate the work. In practice, these descriptions are often highly compressed, and they often refer back to previous papers by the authors. The third section is usually  Results. This section describes the experiments and the reasons they were done. Generally, the logic of the Results section follows directly from that of the Introduction. That is, the Introduction poses the questions addressed in the early part of Results. Beyond this point, the organization of Results differs from one paper to another. In some papers, the results are presented without extensive discussion, which is reserved for the following section. This is appropriate when the data in the early parts do not need to be interpreted extensively to understand why the later experiments were done. In other papers, results are given, and then they are interpreted, perhaps taken together with other findings not in the paper, so as to give the logical basis for later experiments. The fourth section is the  Discussion. This section serves several purposes. First, the data in the paper are interpreted; that is, they are analyzed to show what the authors believe the data show. Any limitations to the interpretations should be acknowledged, and fact should clearly be separated from speculation. Second, the findings of the paper are related to other findings in the field. This serves to show how the findings contribute to knowledge, or correct the errors of previous work. As stated, some of these logical arguments are often found in the Results when it is necessary to clarify why later experiments were carried out. Although you might argue that in this case the discussion material should be presented in the Introduction, more often you cannot grasp its significance until the first part of Results is given. Finally, papers usually have a short  Acknowledgements  section, in which various contributions of other workers are recognized, followed by a  Reference  list giving references to papers and other works cited in the text. Papers also contain several  Figures  and  Tables. These contain data described in the paper. The figures and tables also have legends, whose purpose is to give details of the particular experiment or experiments shown there. Typically, if a procedure is used only once in a paper, these details are described in Materials and Methods, and the Figure or Table legend refers back to that description. If a procedure is used repeatedly, however, a general description is given in Materials and Methods, and the details for a particular experiment are given in the Table or Figure legend. Variations on the organization of a paper In most scientific journals, the above format is followed. Occasionally, the Results and Discussion are combined, in cases in which the data need extensive discussion to allow the reader to follow the train of logic developed in the course of the research. As stated, in some journals, Materials and Methods follows the Discussion. In certain older papers, the Summary was given at the end of the paper. The formats for two widely-read journals,  Science  and  Nature, differ markedly from the above outline. These journals reach a wide audience, and many authors wish to publish in them; accordingly, the space limitations on the papers are severe, and the prose is usually highly compressed. In both journals, there are no discrete sections, except for a short abstract and a reference list. In  Science, the abstract is self-contained; in  Nature, the abstract also serves as a brief introduction to the paper. Experimental details are usually given either in endnotes (for  Science) or Figure and Table legends and a short Methods section (in  Nature). Authors often try to circumvent length limitations by putting as much material as possible in these places. In addition, an increasingly common practice is to put a substantial fraction of the less-important material, and much of the methodology, into Supplemental Data that can be accessed online. Many other journals also have length limitations, which similarly lead to a need for conciseness. For example, the  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  (PNAS) has a six-page limit;  Cell  severely edits many papers to shorten them, and has a short word limit in the abstract; and so on. In response to the pressure to edit and make the paper concise, many authors choose to condense or, more typically, omit the logical connections that would make the flow of the paper easy. In addition, much of the background that would make the paper accessible to a wider audience is condensed or omitted, so that the less-informed reader has to consult a review article or previous papers to make sense of what the issues are and why they are important. Finally, again, authors often circumvent page limitations by putting crucial details into the Figure and Table legends, especially when (as in  PNAS) these are set in smaller type. Fortunately, the recent widespread practice of putting less-critical material into online supplemental material has lessened the pressure to compress content so drastically, but it is still a problem for older papers. Back to outline 2. Reading a scientific paper Although it is tempting to read the paper straight through as you would do with most text, it is more efficient to organize the way you read. Generally, you first read the Abstract in order to understand the major points of the work. The extent of background assumed by different authors, and allowed by the journal, also varies as just discussed. One extremely useful habit in reading a paper is to read the Title and the Abstract and, before going on, review in your mind what you know about the topic. This serves several purposes. First, it clarifies whether you in fact know enough background to appreciate the paper. If not, you might choose to read the background in a review or textbook, as appropriate. Second, it refreshes your memory about the topic. Third, and perhaps most importantly, it helps ou as the reader integrate the new information into your previous knowledge about the topic. That is, it is used as a part of the self-education process that any professional must continue throughout his/her career. If you are very familiar with the field, the Introduction can be skimmed or even skipped. As stated above, the logical flow of most papers goes straight from the Introduction to Results; accordingly, the pape r should be read in that way as well, skipping Materials and Methods and referring back to this section as needed to clarify what was actually done. A reader familiar with the field who is interested in a particular point given in the Abstract often skips directly to the relevant section of the Results, and from there to the Discussion for interpretation of the findings. This is only easy to do if the paper is organized properly. Codewords Many papers contain shorthand phrases that we might term ‘codewords', since they have connotations that are generally not explicit. In many papers, not all the experimental data are shown, but referred to by â€Å"(data not shown)†. This is often for reasons of space; the practice is accepted when the authors have documented their competence to do the experiments properly (usually in previous papers). Two other codewords are â€Å"unpublished data† and â€Å"preliminary data†. The former can either mean that the data are not of publishable quality or that the work is part of a larger story that will one day be published. The latter means different things to different people, but one connotation is that the experiment was done only once. Back to outline 3. Difficulties in reading a paper Several difficulties confront the reader, particularly one who is not familiar with the field. As discussed above, it may be necessary to bring yourself up to speed before beginning a paper, no matter how well written it is. Be aware, however, that although some problems may lie in the reader, many are the fault of the writer. One major problem is that many papers are poorly written. Some scientists are poor writers. Many others do not enjoy writing, and do not take the time or effort to ensure that the prose is clear and logical. Also, the author is typically so familiar with the material that it is difficult to step back and see it from the point of view of a reader not familiar with the topic and for whom the paper is just another of a large stack of papers that need to be read. Bad writing has several consequences for the reader. First, the logical connections are often left out. Instead of saying why an experiment was done, or what ideas were being tested, the experiment is simply described. Second, papers are often cluttered with a great deal of jargon. Third, the authors often do not provide a clear road-map through the paper; side issues and fine points are given equal air time with the main logical thread, and the reader loses this thread. In better writing, these side issues are relegated to Figure legends, Materials and Methods, or online Supplemental Material, or else clearly identified as side issues, so as not to distract the reader. Another major difficulty arises when the reader seeks to understand just what the experiment was. All too often, authors refer back to previous papers; these refer in turn to previous papers in a long chain. Often that chain ends in a paper that describes several methods, and it is unclear which was used. Or the chain ends in a journal with severe space limitations, and the description is so compressed as to be unclear. More often, the descriptions are simply not well-written, so that it is ambiguous what was done. Other difficulties arise when the authors are uncritical about their experiments; if they firmly believe a particular model, they may not be open-minded about other possibilities. These may not be tested experimentally, and may even go unmentioned in the Discussion. Still another, related problem is that many authors do not clearly distinguish between fact and speculation, especially in the Discussion. This makes it difficult for the reader to know how well-established are the â€Å"facts† under discussion. One final problem arises from the sociology of science. Many authors are ambitious and wish to publish in trendy journals. As a consequence, they overstate the importance of their findings, or put a speculation into the title in a way that makes it sound like a well-established finding. Another example of this approach is the â€Å"Assertive Sentence Title†, which presents a major conclusion of the paper as a declarative sentence (such as â€Å"LexA is a repressor of the  recA  and  lexA  genes†). This trend is becoming prevalent; look at recent issues of  Cell  for examples. It's not so bad when the assertive sentence is well-documented (as it was in the example given), but all too often the assertive sentence is nothing more than a speculation, and the hasty reader may well conclude that the issue is settled when it isn't. These last factors represent the public relations side of a competitive field. This behavior is understandable, if not praiseworthy. But when the authors mislead the reader as to what is firmly established and what is speculation, it is hard, especially for the novice, to know what is settled and what is not. A careful evaluation is necessary, as we now discuss. Back to outline 4. Evaluating a paper A thorough understanding and evaluation of a paper involves answering several questions: a. What  questions  does the paper address? b. What are the main  conclusions  of the paper? . What  evidence  supports those conclusions? d. Do the data actually  support  the conclusions? e. What is the  quality  of the evidence? f. Why are the conclusions  important? a. What questions does the paper address? Before addressing this question, we need to be aware that research in biochemistry and molecular biology can be of several different types: |Type of research |Question ask ed: | |Descriptive |What is there? What do we see? | |Comparative |How does it compare to other organisms? Are our findings | | |general? | |Analytical |How does it work? What is the mechanism? | Descriptive  research often takes place in the early stages of our understanding of a system. We can't formulate hypotheses about how a system works, or what its interconnections are, until we know what is there. Typical descriptive approaches in molecular biology are DNA sequencing and DNA microarray approaches. In biochemistry, one could regard x-ray crystallography as a descriptive endeavor. Comparative  research often takes place when we are asking how general a finding is. Is it specific to my particular organism, or is it broadly applicable? A typical comparative approach would be comparing the sequence of a gene from one organism with that from the other organisms in which that gene is found. One example of this is the observation that the actin genes from humans and budding yeast are 89% identical and 96% similar. Analytical  research generally takes place when we know enough to begin formulating hypotheses about how a system works, about how the parts are interconnected, and what the causal connections are. A typical analytical approach would be to devise two (or more) alternative hypotheses about how a system operates. These hypotheses would all be consistent with current knowledge about the system. Ideally, the approach would devise a set of experiments todistinguish among these hypotheses. A classic example is the Meselson-Stahl experiment. Of course, many papers are a combination of these approaches. For instance, researchers might sequence a gene from their model organism; compare its sequence to homologous genes from other organisms; use this comparison to devise a hypothesis for the function of the gene product; and test this hypothesis by making a site-directed change in the gene and asking how that affects the phenotype of the organism and/or the biochemical function of the gene product. Being aware that not all papers have the same approach can orient you towards recognizing the major questions that a paper addresses. What are these questions? In a well-written paper, as described above, the Introduction generally goes from the general to the specific, eventually framing a question or set of questions. This is a good starting place. In addition, the results of experiments usually raise additional questions, which the authors may attempt to answer. These questions usually become evident only in the Results section. Back to Evaluating a paper b. What are the main conclusions of the paper? This question can often be answered in a preliminary way by studying the abstract of the paper. Here the authors highlight what they think are the key points. This is not enough, because abstracts often have severe space constraints, but it can serve as a starting point. Still, you need to read the paper with this question in mind. Back to Evaluating a paper c. What evidence supports those conclusions? Generally, you can get a pretty good idea about this from the Results section. The description of the findings points to the relevant tables and figures. This is easiest when there is one primary experiment to support a point. However, it is often the case that several different experiments or approaches combine to support a particular conclusion. For example, the first experiment might have several possible interpretations, and the later ones are designed to distinguish among these. In the ideal case, the Discussion begins with a section of the form â€Å"Three lines of evidence provide support for the conclusion that†¦ First, †¦ Second,†¦ etc. † However, difficulties can arise when the paper is poorly written (see above). The authors often do not present a concise summary of this type, leaving you to make it yourself. A skeptic might argue that in such cases the logical structure of the argument is weak and is omitted on purpose! In any case, you need to be sure that you understand the relationship between the data and the conclusions. Back to Evaluating a paper d. Do the data actually support the conclusions? One major advantage of doing this is that it helps you to evaluate whether the conclusion is sound. If we assume for the moment that the data are believable (see next section), it still might be the case that the data do not actually support the conclusion the authors wish to reach. There are at least two different ways this can happen: i. The logical connection between the data and the interpretation is not sound ii. There might be other interpretations that might be consistent with the data. One important aspect to look for is whether the authors take multiple approaches to answering a question. Do they have multiple lines of evidence, from different directions, supporting their conclusions? If there is only one line of evidence, it is more likely that it could be interpreted in a different way; multiple approaches make the argument more persuasive. Another thing to look for is implicit or hidden assumptions used by the authors in interpreting their data. This can be hard to do, unless you understand the field thoroughly. Back to Evaluating a paper e. What is the quality of that evidence? This is the hardest question to answer, for novices and experts alike. At the same time, it is one of the most important skills to learn as a young scientist. It involves a major reorientation from being a relatively passive consumer of information and ideas to an active producer and critical evaluator of them. This is not easy and takes years to master. Beginning scientists often wonder, â€Å"Who am I to question these authorities? After all the paper was published in a top journal, so the authors must have a high standing, and the work must have received a critical review by experts. † Unfortunately, that's not always the case. In any case, developing your ability to evaluate evidence is one of the hardest and most important aspects of learning to be a critical scientist and reader. How can you evaluate the evidence? First, you need to understand thoroughly the methods used in the experiments. Often these are described poorly or not at all (see  above). The details are often missing, but more importantly the authors usually assume that the reader has a general knowledge of common methods in the field (such as immunoblotting, cloning, genetic methods, or DNase I footprinting). If you lack this knowledge, as discussed  above  you have to make the extra effort to inform yourself about the basic methodology before you can evaluate the data. Sometimes you have to trace back the details of the methods if they are important. The increasing availability of journals on the Web has made this easier by obviating the need to find a hard-copy issue,  e. . in the library. A  comprehensive listing of journals  relevant to this course, developed by the Science Library, allows access to most of the listed volumes from any computer at the University; a  second list  at the Arizona Health Sciences Library includes some other journals, again from University computers. Second,  you need to know the  limitations  of the methodology. E very method has limitations, and if the experiments are not done correctly they can't be interpreted. For instance, an immunoblot is not a very quantitative method. Moreover, in a certain range of protein the signal increases (that is, the signal is at least roughly â€Å"linear†), but above a certain amount of protein the signal no longer increases. Therefore, to use this method correctly one needs a standard curve that shows that the experimental lanes are in a linear range. Often, the authors will not show this standard curve, but they should state that such curves were done. If you don't see such an assertion, it could of course result from bad writing, but it might also not have been done. If it wasn't done, a dark band might mean â€Å"there is this much protein or an indefinite amount more†. Third, importantly, you need to distinguish between what the data show and what the authors  say  they show. The latter is really an interpretation on the authors' part, though it is generally not stated to be an interpretation. Papers usually state something like â€Å"the data in Fig. x show that †¦ â€Å". This is the authors' interpretation of the data. Do you interpret it the same way? You need to look carefully at the data to ensure that they really do show what the authors say they do. You can only do this effectively if you understand the methods and their limitations. Fourth, it is often helpful to look at the original journal, or its electronic counterpart, instead of a photocopy. Particularly for half-tone figures such as photos of gels or autoradiograms, the contrast is distorted, usually increased, by photocopying, so that the data are misrepresented. Fifth, you should ask if the proper controls are present. Controls tell us that nature is behaving the way we expect it to under the conditions of the experiment (seehere  for more details). If the controls are missing, it is harder to be confident that the results really show what is happening in the experiment. You should try to develop the habit of asking â€Å"where are the controls? † and looking for them. Back to Evaluating a paper f. Why are the conclusions important? Do the conclusions make a significant advance in our knowledge? Do they lead to new insights, or even new research directions? Again, answering these questions requires that you understand the field relatively well. Back to Evaluating a paper Back to outline Back to 568 home page [pic] BIOC/MCB 568 — University of Arizona http://www. biochem. arizona. edu/classes/bioc568/bioc568. htm Last modified August 18, 2010 All contents copyright  © 2010. All rights reserved. How to review a scientific paper? |Contents | |  [hide] | |1  Why me? | |2  Am I a suitable reviewer? | |3  How does the review process work? | |4  How do I start? | |5  What to look for? | |6  How to put it in words? | |7  What to recommend? | |8  How to approach a revision? | |9  I’ve done all this work†¦ what do I get out of it? | |10  Further reading | [edit]Why me? You may be surprised that you may be asked as a peer-reviewer for an authorative journal when you yourself are still a PhD-student and with a limited number of published articles. This does not make you an inappropriate reviewer. You may have been ‘found’ in several ways: 1. When submitting a paper, you will often be asked to fill out contact details and area’s of expertise and/or keywords. Journal editors can screen the journal database for potential reviewers with research expertise matching that of the paper. 2. You could have been requested as a reviewer by the submitting authors 3. You could have been suggested as a reviewer by another reviewer (when declining an invitation to review a paper, one is usually asked to suggest an alternative reviewer) or an editor may know you personally. 4. You could have been found based on previous articles you’ve published that were referenced in the submitted manuscript, or simply found on pubmed. [edit]Am I a suitable reviewer? If you seriously question your ability to review the manuscript, you should decline the review invitation. This may be because you are not familiar with the subject, because you are biased towards the submitted work (e. g. ecause of personal relations with the authors, or because the paper is highly competitive with your own work), or just because you feel too inexperienced. However, in the latter case, you may consider accepting the review and asking a more experienced colleague to assist you with the review. Also, it is an excellent way to learn how to peer-review an article by first assistin g colleague in their reviews. Please always keep confidentiality in mind. Contact the editor if you have any questions. [edit]How does the review process work? 1. The editor and ultimately editorial board decide on the fate of the manuscript. . After a manuscript is assigned to an editor, it is read by the editor and he or she decides if the paper is sent out for peer-review. Occasionally, a triage review is commissioned, where an external reviewer is asked for an opinion if the paper should be sent out for full review. 3. Reviewers are invited and receive an abstract of the manuscript. Usually, 2 or more reviewers are sought. 4. After acceptance of the invitation for review, reviewers receive the full manuscript. If a reviewer then discovers that he or she is not suitable after all, the invitation for review can still be declined. 5. The reviewers write their reviews. Usually, this consists of a) filling out a form with scores (for novelty, technical excellence, appropriateness of manuscript preparation, etcetera), b) comments to the authors, and c) comments to the editor. Typically, an advice regarding overall priority for publication and/or acceptance is asked for, which is blinded to the authors. 6. After the editor has received the reviewer comments, he may decide to commission another reviewer, particularly if reviewer opinions are contradictory or if there is a need for specific expertise, e. g. additional review by a statistical expert. . After all reviews have been completed, the editor and editorial board decide to either a. accept the manuscript, b. accept the manuscript after (minor) revision, c. reject the article, but invite to revise the manuscript, or d. reject the manuscript. 8. Note that an editor will generally reserve the right to edit your reviewer comments to the author. Over-enthusiastic com pliments may be removed if the editor eventually decides to reject the paper. Also, you may see that your comments the editor are also passed on to the authors if the editor feels this is appropriate. 9. If a manuscript is resubmitted after revision, it is usually resent to the original reviewers. [edit]How do I start? Before reading the manuscript, make sure you know the aims and scope of the journal. Read the manuscript and supplementary files for a first time, without spending too much time on details. Consider reading additional literature, such as relating articles by the same authors. Then re-read the manuscript in detail and try to follow the line of thought of the authors. Identify the hypothesis, key findings and assess if the (discussion of) the results adequately reflects back on the original hypothesis. Critically assess the methods and representation of data in the text, tables and figures. Draft a review. Re-read the manuscript and re-read you review. [edit]What to look for? Visit the journal’s website, where criteria for reviewers are commonly supplied. Also, see if there is a score-sheet as this will also tell you what the editors would like you to look for. As a general check-list, consider the following points (taken from the BMJ website): †¢ Is the paper important? †¢ Is the work original? Does the work add enough to what is already in the literature? †¢ Is there a clear message? Does the paper read well and make sense? †¢ Is this journal the right place for this paper? Scientific reliability: †¢ Abstract/summary — does it reflect accurately what the paper says? †¢ Research question — is it clearly defined and appropriately answered? †¢ Overall design of study — is it adequate? †¢ Participants studied   are they dequately described and their conditions defined? †¢ Methods — are they adequately described? For randomised trials: CONSORT Ethical? †¢ Results — does it answer the research question? Credible? Well presented? †¢ Usefulness of tables and figures? Is the quality good enough? Can some eliminated? Is the data correct in the tables? †¢ Interpretation and conclusions — are they warranted by and sufficiently derived from/focused on the data? Message clear? †¢ References — are they up to date and relevant? Any glaring omissions? [edit]How to put it in words? As a reviewer, it is your task to objectively assess the strengths and weaknesses in a manuscript, provide constructive criticism and list suggestions for improvement. It may help to organize your reviewer comments to the author as follows: – a brief summary of the findings in the article. This helps organize your own grasp on the data in the article. Also, it helps the associate editor and editorial board to understand the content of the manuscript. Finally, it shows the author that you have read and understood the manuscript. – consider giving a general comment on the article on e. g. novelty and overall impression of the data and manuscript preparation. -list major comments. Number them for clarity. Major comments are comments, questions and/or suggestions that are in your view essential points that need to be appropriately addressed for the manuscript to become acceptable for publication. list minor comments such as typographic errors or suggestions for additional non-essential data to be included. Also keep in mind: Be kind. Even a ‘bad’ paper has generally required substantial investment of time and effort by the authors. Do not be tempted by the reviewer anonymousity to make unkind remarks. Be fair. Try to be objectively critical. Do not hesi tate to identify flaws in the manuscript, but keep eye for balancing criticism with potential strengths of the manuscript, technical limitations and the nature of the journal. If you give criticism, also give a motivation, including literature references if applicable. Be concise. Be ‘action-able’. Providing practical suggestions for textual changes or additional experiments helps convey what you think would improve the manuscript better than simple criticism. [edit]What to recommend? You give advice to the editor regarding the manuscript and this advice generally includes an advice on how the paper should be handled. It is a misconception that reviewers decide if a paper is accepted: the editor and editorial board ultimately decide. This also means that it is essential to refrain from including an advice on acceptance or rejection of a paper in the review comments that are provided. Editors may edit your comments if you imply acceptance or rejection. Consider recommending a major revision if you feel the paper would become acceptable for publication if your suggestions are adequately addressed. If you feel that the manuscript would be insufficient for publication even after revision, e. g. based on limited novelty, rejection would be more appropriate. [edit]How to approach a revision? If a manuscript is returned to the authors with the invitation to resubmit after revision, you will commonly be asked to review the revised manuscript and author correspondence with replies to your comments. However, this is at the editor’s discretion. If you receive a revised manuscript, focus on the response to your own review and in principle limit yourself to the points you previously raised. See if the authors have satisfactorily addressed your comments. Check with your original comments to see if the authors have included all the points you raised. It is not good practice if you come up with new criticisms regarding points that you could have identified during your first assessment of the manuscript. Also, try to finish your re-evaluation with some priority as this is customary with resubmissions and will prevent excessive delay of anuscript publication. If you had numbered your major comments and had provided action-able suggestions, you will now appreciate the importance of doing so. [edit]I’ve done all this work†¦ what do I get out of it? Writing a good review takes costly time. However, there are several reasons why every researcher should write peer-reviews. First, for you as a researcher, you will find that participating in the reviewing process will increase the quality of your own work and likelihood of getting your articles accepted. You’re given an insider’s view of the reviewing process. Also, going through the process of peer-reviewing a manuscript and reading other reviewer’s comments, will help you critically assess your own manuscript more effectively. Second, for you as a researcher, building a track record of journals that request your services as a reviewer may be a component of your curriculum vitae. Also, a track record of good reviews will enhance your reputations with the editors. Third, as a reviewer, you’re given an early peak at novel unpublished data. This brings a major responsibility and breaching confidentiality to scoop a submitting author would be a serious offence. However, it may give an incentive to (re)direct your experiments so that you have a ‘head-start’ after eventual publication of the manuscript you’re reviewing. Fourth, writing a review means you are participating in the social culture of research. You are helping the editor that invited you. You are making peer-review possible for the submitting author and ultimately, you are enabling the continuing process of keeping a high quality level of science. Finally, invited editorial comments are often commissioned to reviewers that provided a good track record of peer reviews and showed profound insight in he reviewed manuscript. [edit]Further reading http://www. people. vcu. edu/~aslee/referee. htm http://www. medscape. com/viewarticle/409692_3 Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. JAMA. 1997 Mar 19;277(11):927-34 Downloadable from e. g. [here] Home  Ã‚  Ã‚  About  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cont act  Ã‚  Ã‚  Contribute  Ã‚  Ã‚  Feedback †¢ Log in / create account ? Research Topics ? Learning Resources ? Dutch Investigators ? Dutch Publications ? Clinical Trials ? Practical PhD guide ? Useful links pic] ? Online forum [pic] ? Agenda ? PLAN/Courses ? Newsletters ? Spotlights ? Photo Gallery ? Jobs/Trainees Top of Form [pic][pic]  Ã‚  [pic] Bottom of Form Supported by: [pic] [pic] [pic] | | | | ? About NIER ? Disclaimers ? Views: 5,040 ? Modified: 13:53, 26 January 2009. ? Hosted by Xentax Foundation |Reviewing a Manuscript | |for Publication | |Allen S. Lee | |Professor, Department of Information Systems   | |Eminent Scholar, Information Systems Research Institute | |School of Business   | |Virginia Commonwealth University | |http://www. eople. vcu. edu/~aslee/ | |Published as an invited note in | |Journal of Operations Management   | |Volume 13, Number 1 (July 1995), pp. 7-92. | |If you copy, download, or circulate this paper, please simply inform the author (at  [email  protected] mit. edu) | |that you are doing so. | |This paper is based on remarks that the author prepared for presentation at the New Faculty Workshop held at | |the 23rdAnnual Meeting of the Decision Sciences Institute in Miami Beach, Florida, November 22, 1991. |  Ã‚   | |[pic] | |Abstract | |This paper offers suggestions about how to review a manuscript submitted for publication in the fields of | |management information systems, organizational studies, operations management, and management in general. |Rationales for the suggestions and ill ustrative sample comments are provided. | |  Ã‚  Ã‚   | |[pic] | |Contents | |Abstract | |Action 1:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Start out with your own summary of the manuscript. | |Action 2:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Let the editor and author know what your expertise does, and does not, cover. |Action 3:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Give â€Å"action-able† advice. | |Action 4:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Convince the authors by arguing from their own assumptions and framework. | |Action 5:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Provide both (1) your general, overall reaction and (2) a list of specific, numbered | |point-by-point comments. | |Action 6:  Ã‚  Ã‚   List the manuscript’s strengths. | |Action 7:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Quote, give the page number, or otherwise explicitly locate the parts of the manuscript to which | |you are referring. | |Action 8:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Offer comments on tables, figures, and diagrams. |Action 9:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Be kind. | |Action 10:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Be frank, in a tactful way, about your own emotional reaction. | |Action 11:  Ã‚  Ã ‚   Do some of your own library research. | |Action 12:  Ã‚  Ã‚   If rejecting the manuscript, suggest what future research efforts might examine. | |Action 13:  Ã‚  Ã‚   If recommending a revision, spell out alternative scenarios for how the revision could be done. | |Action 14:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Provide citations or a bibliography. | |Action 15:  Ã‚  Ã‚   Date your review. | |Why Review? |Conclusion | |  Ã‚   | |[pic] | | | |As management researchers, we regard the behavior of managers, systems professionals, and other organizational | |participants to be a manifestation of the values that they hold as members of their organization and their | |profession. In the same way, we may regard our own behaviors, as reviewers of manuscripts in the â€Å"double blind†| |reviewing process, to be a manifestation of the values that we hold as members of the community of scholars. As| |an author and editor, I have seen our community manifest the best and the worst of human values in the | |anonymous reviews offered on manuscripts submitted for publication. Some reviewers rise to the occasion and | |give extensive help, even though the anonymous reviewing process promises them nothing in return for their | |efforts. Other reviewers hide behind the anonymity of the reviewing process, offering negative remarks that | |they would not have the courage to voice in public. My immediate purpose is to offer suggestions, based on the | |reviews I have seen as an author and editor, about how to provide useful, kind, constructive, and responsible | |reviews of manuscripts submitted for publication. I offer these suggestions to my colleagues who review | |manuscripts submitted for publication in research journals in management information systems, organizational | studies, operations management, and other fields of management. | |1. Suggestions for Reviewing a Manuscript | |For many of the suggestions below, I offer sample comments to illustrate my points. I have based these comments| |on actual reviews. | |1. 1  Ã‚  Ã‚   Start out with Your Own Summary of the Manuscript | | | |As a reviewer for a manuscript, I was surprised, upon subsequently receiving the associate editor’s own review,| |to see that he began with a summary of the manuscript. After all, an author knows what his or her own | |manuscript is about, so why summarize it? | |Apparently, at least in this case, the summary was provided for the benefit of the senior editor, not | |necessarily the author. The associate editor’s review was, I realized, as much a recommendation to the senior | |editor as it was an explanation to the authors. Because a reviewer’s review is, in the same way, a | |recommendation to an editor, I have come to believe that a summary of the manuscript being considered is no | |less useful in the reviewer’s review. | |I now believe that an opening summary may also be useful to the manuscript’s author and to the reviewer himself| |or herself. For the author, how effectively the reviewer’s summary does or does not capture the gist of the | |manuscript may serve as one measure of how effectively the manuscript communicates its message. For the | |reviewer, the very exercise of composing a summary encourages and virtually assures a thorough reading of the | |manuscript. | |Opening summaries are also useful to the editor when the manuscript is controversial. Occasionally, as an | |editor, I have wondered if the different reviewers assigned to a controversial manuscript have actually been | |sent the same manuscript. An opening summary of the manuscript, presented from the reviewer’s own perspective, | |would be a big help to the editor when he or she is trying to reach a decision on a manuscript that evokes | |controversial reactions. |Some illustrative sample comments are: | |This paper represents a major effort to test two competing theories about user satisfaction with electronic | |mail†¦ The methodolo gy of the paper consists of†¦ The data were gathered from two field sites†¦ The major | |finding was that†¦ The contributions to theory and practice would appear to be†¦ | |  Ã‚   | |This manuscript pursues two somewhat conflicting goals. It attempts to†¦, while it also tries to†¦. The authors | |do a good job of the first one, but their treatment of the second one raises more questions than it answers. | | | |1.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Let the Editor and Author Know What Your Expertise Does, and Does Not, Cover | | | |By stating where you have expertise and, no less important, where you lack expertise, you will be helping the | |editor and author in their job of interpreting and weighing your comments. Reviewers, in voluntarily | |identifying where their expertise may be lacking with regard to the manuscript being reviewed, might even gain | |additional credibility for their claims about where they do have expertise. | |I read the paper from two perspectiv es: 1) someone who has employed the same methodology that the authors are | |using and 2) someone who is not familiar at all with the substantive area that the authors are investigating. | |My criticisms and suggestions are offered entirely from the first perspective. |For the reader, such as myself, who is unfamiliar with concepts X, Y, and Z, the authors present no helpful | |explanation of these concepts or justification for their inclusion in the study in the first place†¦Ã‚  Ã‚   | |  Ã‚   | |Another problem I had is that, probably like most of the people who read this journal, I am not deeply read in | |all three of the research fields that the authors draw upon. I cannot judge how well this paper builds on past | |research. | |   | |1. 3  Ã‚  Ã‚   Give â€Å"Action-able† Advice | |Advice stated in the form of do-able tasks is mutually advantageous to the author and the reviewer in the event| |that the editor asks for a revision. For the author, the advised actions point to a â€Å"fixed target† where he or | |she may aim the revision. For the reviewer, the advised actions (as further interpreted by the editor) may | |serve as the criteria on which to judge the revision. In contrast, a reviewer who offers vague generalities, | |and no action-able advice, in his or her first review would have no real â€Å"handle† with which to approve or | |disapprove the revision; such a reviewer might very well find a revision returning to â€Å"haunt† him or her. | |If my concerns can be addressed successfully in a revision, then I believe the paper should be published. I | |have four major concerns. They are†¦ | |  Ã‚   | |Therefore, I recommend rejection, but would be willing to review a revised version if (1) †¦Ã‚   and (2) †¦Ã‚   | |  Ã‚   | |The following suggestions are provided to improve the weaknesses pointed out above: | |Clearly state the objectives, contributions, and limitations of the study. | |Provide a definition of what you mean by Organizational Support System and use it consistently throughout the | |paper. | |Using this definition, narrow down the literature review. | |1.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Convince the Authors by Arguing from  Their Own Assumptions and Framework | |  Ã‚  Ã‚   | |A reviewer can always take issue with a manuscript’s assumptions and framework. However, disagreeing with the | |assumptions is not always an effective reviewing strategy because, strictly speaking, all assumptions are | |incorrect for what they assume away. An alternative strategy is to accept the manuscript’s assumptions (if only| |for the sake of argument) and then to point out any shortcomings in the manuscript by examining the | |consequences that follow from these assumptions. (Indeed, if the assumptions lead to no objectionable | |consequences, then the assumptions might not be bad assumptions in the first place.    By casting the review in | |terms of the authors’ own framework, the reviewer might then be more likely to convince the authors by courting| |and affirming the authors, rather than by disputing the authors. | |On the first page, the paper says that it will do the following†¦ The rest of the paper, however, does not | |follow through adequately on what it promised to do. In particular, according to the standards of the research | |framework that the authors themselves have chosen, the following things still need to be done or need to be | |done better†¦ Still, there is much potential value in what the paper initially proposed and I encourage the | |authors to flesh out the paper’s ide as more thoroughly. Along these lines, my suggestions are†¦ | |If the reviewer wishes to suggest a different framework and set of assumptions to the authors, this suggestion | |would be more convincing after the reviewer has demonstrated that he or she has given due consideration to the | |authors’ original framework, rather than dismissing it outright. | |1. 5  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Provide Both (1) Your General, Overall Reaction and (2) a List of Specific, Numbered Point-by-Point | |Comments | |  Ã‚   | |As an author, I have received some reviews consisting entirely of numbered, point-by-point comments that give | |the impression that the reviewer was simply typing up his or her review as he or she was reading my manuscript | |linearly, sentence-by-sentence, turning it page-by-page. Whereas such a review might be detailed and even | |exhaustive, I have found that such reviews sometimes negatively criticize me on matters that I actually address| |satisfactorily later in the manuscript. These reviewers do a good job of analyzing the words in my manuscript, | |but they appear to put no effort into discerning what I meant by these words. My impression has been that these| |reviewers considered the reviewing job to be a burden and just wanted to get it over. I have found that if | |there is no statement of an overall reaction from the reviewer, I am sometimes left wondering about what the | |reviewer really means. In fact, in this situation, I sometimes wonder if the reviewer himself knows what he | |means. For these reasons, I believe that a general, overall reaction or overview from the reviewer is needed as| |much as his or her specific, point-by-point comments. | |  However, there is at least one occasion in which a linear, sentence-by-sentence, and page-by-page reading | |might be useful. When I am a reviewer, I will occasionally amend my review by paging through the manuscript | |once more and enumerating, point-by-point, any comments which I had planned to make when I first read the | |manuscript, but which somehow did not make their way into the main body of my review. | |Numbering the major points in a review is helpful to the editor and author. For instance, an editor could then | |conveniently say to the author, â€Å"Pay particular attention to points 2, 3, and 5 by Reviewer 1. † | |1. 6  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  List the Manuscript’s Strengths | |  Ã‚  Ã‚   | |Perhaps the most disheartening review I have ever seen is one that began with the single-sentence paragraph, | |â€Å"There are several problems with this paper,† and followed with a numbered, blow-by-blow listing of all the | |alleged problems in the manuscript. An accompanying listing of the manuscript’s strengths would have made the | |review more palatable (and hence convincing) to the author. |   | |A listing of the manuscript’s strengths takes on added importance when the reviewer’s recommendation is that | |the manuscript should be rejected. Is there really nothing in the manuscript that would make it worthy of a | |revision? Making up a list of the manuscript’s strengths would help make sure that no stone is left u nturned. | |The major asset of this manuscript is that it presents a new approach to†¦This, in turn, raises interesting | |general issues such as: (1)†¦(2)†¦(3)†¦Ã‚   | |  Ã‚   | |Major strengths. |The objective of this paper is of high interest and use to IS managers. | |The authors are exceptionally clear about how this study builds on past studies. | |The methodology, while new to IS, is clearly explained. | |1. 7  Ã‚  Ã‚   Quote, Give the Page Number, or Otherwise Explicitly Locate the Parts of the Manuscript to Which You | |Are Referring | |This will pinpoint what you find difficult to understand, what you disagree with, or exactly what you believe | |needs to be changed. Moreover, if the author should disagree with your assessment, then the author may respond | |precisely to your objection. |In the third paragraph on page 9, it is not clear to me that the authors understand the concept of construct | |validity. | |  Ã‚   | |On page 3, in the literat ure review section, the paper says, â€Å"†¦only 12 percent of the past studies examined the| |same factors we will be examining in this study†¦. † Exactly which studies were these? I do not doubt your | |statement, but I would like to be able to evaluate it for myself. | |  Ã‚   | |On page 2, why does the prior research necessarily suggest that we need to study this topic, as you claim? | |1.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Offer Comments on Tables, Figures, and Diagrams | |  Ã‚  Ã‚   | |Because tables, figures, and diagrams often appear at the end of the manuscript, they often do not receive the | |attention they deserve. However, I believe that reviewing an illustration can be equivalent to reviewing a | |thousand words. Because illustrations are often overlooked in reviews, a detailed comment about an illustration| |might favorably impress the author and editor, suggesting to them that the reviewer is especially | |conscientious. Also, suggesting a new table, figure, or d iagram may encourage the author to sharpen his or her | |argument. | |Table 6 makes no sense to me. The labels along the vertical axis are mentioned nowhere in the text. | |I don’t understand the reason for including Figure 4. What is the relevance of the number of X broken down | |into three categories? | |1. 9  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Be Kind | |  Ã‚  Ã‚   | |There are tactful ways to express negative criticisms. For example, if you are unsure what the contribution of | |the manuscript is, say  Ã¢â‚¬Å"What’s new? †Ã‚  instead of â€Å"So what? †I believe that if the criticism cannot be stated in a| |kind and constructive way, then the criticism might not be worth stating at all. Also, unkind remarks in a | |review that is otherwise valid may create difficulties for the editor who would like to persuade the author | |that the review does have merit. | |1. 10  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Be Frank, in a Tactful Way, about Your Own Emotional Reaction | |  Ã‚   | |Some reviews tend to be dry. As an author and editor, I find that any hint or explicit statement about the | |reviewer’s feelings will help me to interpret what he or she means. | |I had a hard time making a recommendation on this manuscript . . . The paper is nicely written and competent, | |but dull. It is hard to get excited about the findings. | |I am very excited about this paper. At a recent conference a colleague and I were on a panel where we debated | |similar points†¦ | |1. 11  Ã‚  Ã‚   Do Some of Your Own Library Research | |  Ã‚   | |In my experience as an author and editor, I tend to give an extra measure of credibility to reviewers who have | |done some library or other research for their review. This effort makes the review appear sincere and | |convincing. A quotation from a book or article that the reviewer has looked up can be impressive. |On page 14, I was intrigued by the paper’s quotation of Carlson, so I decided to look up Carlson’s article. My | |interpretation of Carlson’s article is. . . | |1. 12  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If Rejecting the Manuscript, Suggest What Future Research Efforts Might Examine | |  Ã‚  Ã‚   | |Our own behavior as reviewers in the â€Å"double blind† review process reveals our individual values, which may | |include adversarial values and collegial values. Rejecting a manuscript and offer ing only the reasons for | |rejection reveals a person who has no contribution to make to the overall community of scholars. Rejecting a | |manuscript, but also offering suggestions about what the author could pursue instead or pursue differently in | |future research, reveals a person who is integrated into the community of scholars and seeks to foster its | |growth. | |1. 13  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If Recommending a Revision, Spell Out Alternative Scenarios for How the Revision Could be Done | |  Ã‚   | |Simply saying â€Å"this paper needs a good re-write† is not, by itself, helpful, especially if it is true. Often, | |there is more than one way to revise a manuscript. Suggest two or more scenarios, mention what you believe to | |be the advantages or disadvantages of each one, and leave the choice up to the author. | |1. 4  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Provide Citations or a Bibliography | |  Ã‚   | |A citation that the author finds helpful can be as valuable as a thousand or more words in the rest of the | |review. | |1. 15  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Date Your Review | |  Ã‚   | |As an author and editor, I do not apprecia te late reviews. Once, I noticed that a colleague of min e | |prominently displayed the current date at the top of a review that he was about to send in. He said that the | |date would let the authors of the manuscript know that, if the overall cycle time on their manuscript was | |excessive, he was not the cause. I also suspect that a date on a review can function as an incentive for | |subsequent participants in the review process to act on the manuscript promptly. | |2. Why Review? | |   | |I see four benefits to engaging in the effort of reviewing a manuscript submitted for publication. | |Benefits to the Reviewer in the Short Run  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Typically, a reviewer will receive the reviews by the other | |reviewers and the editor. Doing a review therefore confers an insider’s view of the reviewing process. The | |reactions of the other reviewers and the editor all contain potential lessons for one’s own manuscripts to be | |submitted for publication. In reviewing manuscripts, one also gains access to invaluable bibliographies. | |Access to these bibliographies is sufficient justification, in itself, to find the time to participate in the | |reviewing process. | |Benefits to the Reviewer in the Long Run  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Good reviewers are hard to find. A track record of good reviews | |will enhance one’s reputation with editors, who may then serve (if need be) as job contacts or outside | |reviewers in one’s tenure, promotion, and re-appointment process. In this regard, one’s performance in his or | |her review of a manuscript can be compared to one’s performance in a job interview. Good reviews can benefit | |one’s career. | |Benefits to Others  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Numerous people have helped me launch my career as an university teacher and researcher. | |When they ask me to review a manuscript for which they are the editor or track chair, I regard their request as| |an opportunity for me to return some of the help they have given me. In our research culture, doing a review | |of a manuscript is a socially significant gesture. | |Benefits to One’s Own School of Thought  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As an author, I often have the experience in which reviewers, | |hostile to and ignorant of the research traditions that I embrace, misreview my submission. Therefore, | |whenever I find that I am a reviewer for a submission that falls in my own school of thought, I expend extra | |efforts to give it a careful, constructive review. Realizing that the refereeing process is political, I will | |do my best to be supportive and affirmingly critical, drawing attention to any major significant points in the | |submission and delineating in explicit, constructive, and â€Å"action-able† ways how the author’s research can be | |improved. As a result, the editor would, if necessary, have some â€Å"ammunition† with which to neutralize any | |hostile and ignorant reviews and thereby to justify a positive editorial decision on this submission. | |3. Conclusion | |No review of a manuscript must incorporate all the features I have described above. I am also confident that | |there are additional useful features I have not yet encountered. I have identified these features based on my | |own experience as a member of the management research community. I encourage my colleagues to do the same. | |Do actual instances of good reviews follow from rules for how to review a manuscript for publication, or do | |rules for ho