Saturday, August 31, 2019

Gambling among Adolescents in North America Essay

Lottery, card games, sports betting and money wagers. These are a few kinds of gambling that adults engage in; however, the youth of today are also found to be gambling more than adults (Derevensky & Gupta, 2002; Huang & Boyer, 2007). According to Derevensky & Gupta (2002), there is an alarmingly high percentage of children and adolescents engaged in gambling activities. In a long-term analysis between 1984 to 1999, it was found that the prevalence of youth gambling in North America increased from 45% to 66% and that the proportion of the youth who have serious gambling-related problems have increased as well from 10% to 15% in the same time period (Huang & Boyer, 2007). In the past 25 years in the United States and Canada, it has been found that the youth is significantly associated with gambling-related problems; the percentage of youth classified under the Sub-clinical or problem gambling (Level 2) and the pathological gambling (Level 3) were at 14. 6% and 4. 8% respectively in 2006, which is more than twice of the adults who only have a percentage of 2. 5% and 1. 5% each (ibid). Among the youth, it has also been found that more young men gamble more than women and they are also identified to be problem gamblers than young women and even among adults (Huang & Boyer, 2007). In North America today, approximately 80% of adolescents have participated in some form of gambling for money within in their lifetime (Felsher, Derevensky & Gupta, 2003; Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). This is an alarming rate. The number of youth who are engaged in adolescent gambling is higher today more than ever before and it is starting to become a serious public health issue that many nations, especially the United States and Canada, are trying to address (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Considerable research by psychologist and sociologists are being conducted regarding this problem. This paper will identify the causes of adolescent gambling, its consequences and what psychologists and the government are doing to treat this issue. Causes of Adolescent Gambling The availability and accessibility of gambling increased progressively in the United States and Canada from 1984-1999, which was also the time that an increase in youth gambling also occurred (Derevensky & Gupta, 2002). This increase in youth gambling has been attributed to the support of the two governments in the lucrative gambling industry. Political economy theories of Sauer maintain that this is due to the need for revenue generation of the large governments (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). The youth have become exposed to numerous gambling establishments, directly and indirectly (Felsher et al, 2003). The widespread legalization of the different kinds of gambling in North America has greatly exposed the youth to the addictive game (ibid; Huang & Boyer, 2007). Gambling has already become a â€Å"well-established recreational form of entertainment† (Felsher et al, 2003) and there is already an estimated 15. 3million adolescents in North America who have engaged in gambling activities and 2. 2 million of these are problem or pathological gamblers (Huang & Boyer, 2007). Among 12-17 year old Americans, 4%–8% of them are already pathological gamblers and another 10%–15% of the youth are at risk of developing a serious problem (Felsher et al. , 2003; Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Adolescents gamble because they are tempted by the â€Å"lure of excitement, entertainment, and potential financial gain associated with gambling† (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Increased exposure to gambling will teach the kids to gamble, and the social learning theory of Albert Bandura points out the role of observation and imitation in the acquisition and maintenance of socially desirable and undesirable characteristics (Felsher et al. , 2003). The increased exposure they have in gambling influences them to do the same. Family and friends are the primary reference groups, but it is the parents who have a stronger influence since they occur earlier than the peer group (ibid). The parents are observed to be having fun and adolescents surveyed said they gamble because their parents play for enjoyment and excitement, and it is the parents who play their children and engage them in gambling (ibid). In the social learning theory, there are six mechanisms identified that is involved in the development of gambling and these are: 1) affective states such as anxiety or depression; 2) cognitive distortions about gambling; 3) behavioral reinforcement schedules; 4) social and institutional determinants such as opportunity to gamble; 5) sub-cultural conditions like prevailing attitude towards gambling and values of the adolescent’s social context and reference groups (as seen in the preceding paragraph); and 6) internal fantasy relationships with personifications like the parents or â€Å"lady luck† (Upfold, 2007). Lottery is the most favored form of gambling by adolescents because of its ease of accessibility and the minimal amount of money required to participate in the draw (Felsher et al. , 2003). Parents purchase the lottery tickets and they include their children in their gambling activity by asking for their advice, such as what number/s they should pick, let them carry the money, fill in the lottery stubs, scratching the numbers, etc. (ibid). This observation and direct participation of gambling from significant reference groups, such as the parents, influences the youth’s participation in gambling activities (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). The parental acceptance of gambling as a recreational activity further encourages the youth to partake in it (Felsher et al. , 2003). Adolescents who gamble say that they have learned it from their parents. 15% of children made first bet with their parents and another 20% with other family members (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Parents gamble in close proximity to their children and they have a poor understanding of the negative consequences that this will have on their child (ibid). The Cognitive-Behavioral Model, which is part of the social-learning theory, may explain this cause. The model is based on the principles of learning from imitation, observation, schedules of enforcement and cognition or how the youth would interpret and draw conclusions about the events around him or her (Upfold, 2007). They are enforced to gamble since the adolescents report that their parents are aware of their gambling and that they do not object to it; 50% of parents are aware and are not worried, disregarding the age of the child (Felsher et al. , 2003). 58. 5% of children in the study of Felsher et al. (2003) also say that they wager money with their parents, hence they are taught to gamble; some parents even purchase lottery tickets for their child’s behalf and it has been found that the more severe gambling a child is doing, the more tickets there are purchased by parents. Also, adolescents who were found to be regularly gambling report that they gamble with their family members and 40% say they do it with their parents (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). â€Å"Problem gambling is governed by a complex set of interrelating factors, causes, and determinants: biological, familial, behavioral, social, and environmental† (ibid). Under environmental, ease of access of online-gambling sites on the Internet is a new problem since the youth can easily access it and can be enticed by the visual appeals of Internet gambling (ibid). Another important reference point and part of the environmental factor which indirectly teaches gambling to children and reinforces it is the school. There are schools who promote gambling through fundraising activities including lottery, raffle draws, bingo, casino nights, and by permitting card playing within schools (ibid). Another explanation for causes of gambling is the Psychodynamic Model, which proposes that personal problems â€Å"lie within the psyche and are an attempt at self-healing or a strategy of resolving unconscious psychic conflicts†¦beyond voluntary control,† (Upfold, 2007), hence the individual continues to engage in gambling. There are three main components in this model and they are: 1) Gambling is an unconscious substitute for aggressive outlets; 2) Gambling involves an unconscious desire to lose- a wish to be punished in reaction to guilt; and 3) Gambling is a medium for continued enactment of psychological conflict (ibid). Adolescents do not engage in gambling for money but for excitement and enjoyment; through video lottery terminals, sports betting, cards, lotteries, bingo and other forms of gambling, adolescents with a gambling problem exhibit a number of dissociative behaviors such as escape into another world where they have altered egos (Derevensky & Gupta, 2002). Their personality traits that are correlated with risk-taking behavior such as excitable, extroverted, anxious and lower self-discipline show that they have poor coping and adaptive skills, so when they cannot cope with many hardships in their life or the stress of being a teenager, they gamble to â€Å"escape from the realities of daily life† (ibid). Gambling has been a way for adolescents who experience negative life events and use emotional-coping strategies to escape their problems, even if they have claimed to have social support from their peers (ibid; Bergevin, Gupta & Derevensky, 2006). The Trait Theory of Gambling is also part of the psychodynamic model and it show that there are certain personalities that is related to the problem of gambling such as depression, anti-social personality disorder- particularly for pathological gamblers, and narcissism- as seen in the compulsive gamblers (Upfold, 2007). Other identified risk factors that may lead to adolescent gambling include male gender, alcohol and drug use, deviant peers, family history of gambling, and impulsive behavior (Pietrzak, Ladd & Petry, 2003). Consequences of Adolescent Gambling The consequences of adolescent gambling are somewhat similar to that of adult gamblers; they not only affect themselves but society as a whole. Adolescent gambling does not only affect the individual adolescent but their families, peers, communities and health services (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). The consequences the adolescent gamblers face are widespread and affects their psychological, behavioral, legal, academic, family and interpersonal domains- they become delinquent, have poor academic performance, impair their academic performance or even drop out from school, disrupt their relationship with family and friends, and display criminal behavior (ibid). They face negative health, psychological, social, personal and financial consequences that is why gambling is becoming a public health issue (ibid). It has been found that there is a strong correlation between adolescent gambling and the increased likelihood to drink alcohol, smoke tobacco and use drugs (Hardoon, Gupta & Derevensky, 2004). Huang & Boyer (2007) also says that adolescent gamblers are more likely to experience psychiatric problems, especially substance use disorders. The common factors that lead to this among adolescents are low self-esteem, depression, suicidal thoughts, victim of abuse, poor school performance, history of delinquency, poor impulse control, being male, early onset of gambling, parental history of gambling, and community/family acceptance of gambling (ibid). This will greatly affect the future of the youth since all that they indulge in is gambling. They become dissociated from the real world and spend much of their time gambling that they do not get to develop themselves as individuals anymore. They become more susceptible to suicide ideation and attempts, they replace their old friends with their gambling associates and they have a higher risk to develop an addiction or poly addictions (Gupta & Derevensky, 2002). In the study of Felsher et al. (2003), they found that 94% of young male gamblers and 93% of young female gamblers are not afraid to get caught. This shows their lack of concern on what may happen to them if they are caught and this may also show the acceptance of their parents. Since parents and most institutions fail to recognize gambling as a serious problem or certain activities to be gambling (Derevensky and Gupta, 2002), the adolescents are at a higher risk to further develop their gambling addiction. The course of gambling varies from one individual to another; however, the social learning theory shows that since gambling behavior is acquired it can be thought of as a continuum or stages from problem-free gambling all the way to pathological gambling (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005; Upfold, 2007). Messerlian & Derevensky (2005) states that â€Å"as gambling escalates and one moves along the continuum of gambling risk, the negative outcomes begin to outweigh any potential benefits† and this is when they would start experiencing different kinds of impaired personal, health, financial and social consequences. Treatments to Adolescent Gambling The numerous psychosocial costs of gambling to the individual, his/her family and to the community shows that this is a problem that must be addressed and treated (Derevensky and Gupta, 2002). Some adolescents do not know that they have a gambling addiction or disorder and this prevents them from getting proper treatment (ibid) however, with the intervention of family, friends or event the school, the adolescent may get treated. There are several kinds of treatment for adolescents who are already problem or pathological gamblers. Before these are discussed, prevention models for gambling will be discussed first since prevention is better than cure. Government policies should be stricter regarding gambling, particularly On-line gambling since that is readily accessible to the youth. Public policies that can influence the social environment and minimize unhealthy gambling behavior such as â€Å"legislation on advertising and promotion, laws regulating minimum age-requirements and their enforcement, provision of programs for harm minimization, fiscal measures, and regulation of the availability of products† should be balanced with the economic gains of the gambling industry (Messerlian & Derevensky 2005). Other prevention models suggested by Derevensky & Gupta (2002) include the need for awareness of the problem; activities that increase knowledge on adolescent gambling; programs to help modify and change attitude that gambling is not harmless; teaching of effective coping and adaptive skills to prevent problematic gambling; changing inappropriate conceptions about skill and luck, the illusion of control and independence in gambling activities; and identification, assessment and referral of students who are indicative of being at risk to gambling problems. Psychosocial approaches are one of the methods used to treat pathological gambling and this for adults this includes Gamblers Anonymous (Pietrzak et al. , 2006). For the adolescents several youth groups have been formed such as youthbet. net in Canada and wannabet. org in the United States; these website are managed by youths and non-governmental organizations to offer assistance and collaboration to adolescents (Messerlian & Derevensky, 2005). Piertzak et al. (2006) found that cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and eclectic therapy have been helpful in reducing problematic gambling behaviors. CBT involves altering the inaccurate perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of adolescents about gambling. The eclectic therapy is the individual approach to treating gambling problems and consists of: detailed assessment, acceptance of the problem, development of effective coping skills, restructuring of free time, involvement of family and social supports, cognitive restructuring, establishment of debt payment plans and relapse prevention (ibid). The motivational enhancement therapy (MET) is also used and is based on the concept that behavior change occurs through identifiable stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, action and maintenance (ibid). In this approach, the therapist is non-confrontational and elicits the adolescent’s understanding of the consequences of gambling and strengthens the commitment to change the ways of the individual; since it has a shorter duration that CBT and other therapies, MET is recommended for onset problems (ibid). A disease model is also sometimes used to treat gambling problems. In this approach, the compulsive gambler is made to embrace abstinence from gambling, to participate in self-help groups and to maintain abstinence by going through therapy to deal with previous or latent psychological problems (Upfold, 2007). There is also the Ecological Approach wherein gambling behavior is viewed from multiple perspectives and addresses the behavior from an individual and socio-environmental level where interventions are made at five levels that affects an individual to gamble: biological, familial, behavioral, social and environmental (Messerlian & Derevesnky, 2005). Internal and external factors cause an adolescent to gamble. Occasional gambling is harmless but once exposed to gambling especially at a young age, gambling problems may occur and develop into an addiction, which may affect the social, academic and personal life of the adolescent. Treatments vary such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, eclectic therapy, motivational-enhancement therapy and ecological approach; however, prevention of adolescent gambling is still the best and this can be done through increased awareness about the public health problem and stricter government policies regarding access of adolescents to gambling venues, especially online gambling. Bibliography Bergevin, T. , Gupta, R. and Derevensky, J. (2006). Adolescent gambling: Understanding the role of stress and coping. Journal of Gambling Studies, (22), 195-208. Derevensky, J. L. and Gupta, R. (2002). Youth gambling: A clinical and research perspective. The Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://www. camh. net/egambling/issue2/feature/index. html Felsher, J. R. , Derevensky, J. L. , Gupta, R. (2003). Parental influences and social modelling of youth lottery participation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 13: 361-377. Hardoon, K. K. , Gupta, R. and Derevensky, J. L. (2004). Psychosocial variables associated with adolescent gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 (2), 170 – 179. Huang, J. H. and Boyer, R.. (2007). Epidemiology of youth gambling problems in Canada: A national prevalence study. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52 (10). Messerlian, C. and Derevensky, M. (2005). Youth gambling: A public health perspective. Journal of Gambling Issues (14). Pietrzak, R. H. , Ladd, G. T. and Petry, N. M. (2003). Disordered gambling in adolescents: Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Drugs, 5 (9), 583 – 592. Upfold, Darryl. (2007). An introduction to conceptual models of problem gambling. Center for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved April 13, 2008, from http://www. problemgambling. ca/EN/ResourcesForProfessionals/Pages/AnIntroductiontoConceptualModelsofProblemGambling. aspx

Friday, August 30, 2019

Superstition Speech

Superstitions To inform my audience about commonly practiced superstitions, their meaning, origins, and what affects they have on our lives and commonly practiced traditions. Hi! My name is Sarah & today I am going to talk to you about superstitions. According to blah blah superstition is defined as blah blah blah. How many of you have ever crossed your fingers for good luck, or got a little nervous about something bad happening on Friday the 13th? I would bet that all of you have said or have heard someone say â€Å"God Bless You† after a sneeze.Have any of you ever wondered where the traditions of Halloween came from? Or maybe why it is thought to be bad luck for the groom to see the bride before the wedding ceremony? Today I am going to enlighten you with the answer to these questions and much more. I. For the most part superstitions can be placed into 2 categories, good or bad luck, many of them also have deeply religious meaning and use symbolism. A. Good Luck 1. You must knock on wood 3 times after mentioning good fortune or the evil spirits will ruin things for you. )The tradition traces back to an ancient pagan belief that spirits resided in trees and that by knocking on the wood, you were paying a small tribute to them by acknowledging them, and could call on them for protection against ill-fortune. Also, you were thanking them for their continued blessings and good luck. 2. Crossing two fingers (the middle and pointing fingers) on one hand as a sign of hopefulness or desire for a particular outcome. a)This is probably the superstition that is most widely used today. By making the sign of the Christian faith with our fingers, evil spirits would be prevented from destroying our chances of good fortune.It is also used as an expression: â€Å"Cross your fingers† is often told to someone hoping for good luck or a particular outcome. Sometimes, when someone tells a lie, they will cross their fingers (usually behind their back). This somehow ab solves them from the consequences or makes the lie not count. See a penny pick it up, all day long you will have good luck. b)Finding a penny and picking it up is believed to bring a day of good luck. Finding a penny with heads up is considered luckier. It is believed that this penny should not be spent; keeping it safe can bring you fortune.Any metal was considered God's gift to mankind 3. Saying â€Å"God Bless You† when someone sneezes. (1)†The blessing of those who sneeze started when the great plague took hold of Europe. Sufferers began sneezing violently, and as such, were bound to die. The Pope passed a law requiring people to bless the sneezer. At the same time, it was expected that anybody sneezing would cover their mouth with a cloth or their hand. This was obviously to stop the spreading of the disease, but many believed that it was to keep the soul intact.Sneezing ‘into the air' would allow the soul to escape and death would be imminent. Humankind has long been equating the soul with breath. It was thought that when one sneezed, the soul briefly flew out of the body, and this might allow an evil spirit to take up residence within. On the other hand, it is also said that blessing someone who sneezes is necessary because their heart skips a beat when they sneeze; it is wishing them continued good health B. Bad Luck 1. Breaking a mirror will bring seven years of bad luck. a)Romans tagged the broken mirror a sign of bad luck.The length of the prescribed misfortune, 7 years, came from the Roman belief that man's body was physically rejuvenated every 7 years, and he became, in effect, a new man. One's reflection in a mirror is thought to be the representation of his or her soul or spiritual state. Breaking the mirror, and therefore the person's reflection, would bring damage to their soul and spiritual hardship. Taking the pieces outside and burying them in the moonlight could avoid this. 2. Open an umbrella indoors and bad luck will à ¢â‚¬Å"rain† on you. a)Origin can be traced back to when umbrellas were used as sun protection.Opening one indoors supposedly was offensive to the sun (or sun god) and would bring his wrath down upon the offender 3. Walking under a ladder will bring bad luck. a)Excluding the obvious – that something might fall on you from above – the belief that walking under a ladder will bring bad luck seems to stem from the ladder forming a triangle with the wall and the ground. This represents the â€Å"Holy Trinity†, and if you violate this by entering the space, it puts you in league with the devil, and you're likely to incur God's wrath. 4. Friday the 13thThe belief that thirteen brings bad luck is an extremely pervasive belief throughout many societies, and is strong enough that many major hotels and high rises traditionally either build only twelve floors, or, if they want to go higher, skip labeling the 13th floor entirely! Many people refuse to stay on the 13th f loor, or in room 13. People stay home from work, for fear of something bad happening. Most airports don't have a thirteenth gate. There are many theories as to why this belief is held. One is that Judas, known as â€Å"the Betrayer of Jesus†, was the 13th member present at the Last Supper.Paraskevidekatriaphobia is the official term for the fear of Friday the Thirteenth. Jesus was said to have been crucified on Friday and the number of guests at the party of the Last Supper was 13, with the 13th guest being Judas, the traitor. II. Superstition plays a role in several of our nationally celebrated Holidays and traditions. A. Halloween blah blah blah 1. Costumes- The people of Ireland at that time were pagans and spirits were a part of their religion. Their beliefs involved good and evil spirits and would strive to live in harmony with both.This is where the custom of dressing up in costumes came in. On All Hallows Eve the spirits of the dead, good and evil, were believed to wal k the streets until sunrise so anyone out might run into an evil spirit and become possessed. To keep from becoming possessed, the villagers would dress in animal skins and paint their faces to scare away the bad spirits. 2. Trick or treat- it began in Ireland as part of their end-of-summer festival. October 31st is the last day of the Celtic calendar and November 1st begins the new year.On this last day of the year it what a widely-held belief that on this one night the spirits of the dead could visit the living. Family members would leave a plate of food and a place set at the table to welcome their spiritual guests. People would also leave gifts of food out to keep from angering the evil spirits and causing them to do mischief. It was a preventative measure. The saying â€Å"trick or treat† was a question, because if you left no treat you may wake up the next morning to find you had been victim of a trick or some form of mischief B. Thanksgiving blah blah During Thanksgivi ng, it is traditional to roast a turkey.When it is served, it's also traditional for two people to take the wishbone (the bird's clavicle) each making a wish, they pull apart the bone to break it. The person ending up with the larger piece will supposedly get his or her wish. Although Thanksgiving is an American holiday, the wishbone custom was brought over to the new world by the Pilgrims from England, where it had long been in practice. The ritual of breaking apart the wishbone can be traced back to the ancient Romans, Etymologists claim that the expression ‘get a lucky break' initially applied to the person winning the larger half in a wishbone tug-of-war. III. There are many wedding traditions that may seem a little silly and far fetched, and even though most of us don’t know their origin or meaning, we still include them in our wedding day rituals. A. It’s bad luck for the groom to see the bride in her wedding dress before the ceremony. 1. During the time wh en arranged marriages were custom, the couple wasn’t allowed to see each other before the wedding at all. The wedding symbolized a business deal between two families and a father would have been pleased for his daughter to marry a man from a rich family.But he also feared that if the groom met the bride before the wedding and thought she wasn’t attractive, he’d call off the wedding, casting shame onto the bride and her family. Therefore, it became tradition that the bride and groom were only allowed to meet at the wedding ceremony so that the groom did not have the opportunity to change his mind. And that veil the bride wears? Its original purpose was also to keep the groom from finding out what the bride looked like until the last possible minute, when it was too late to back out of the transactionB. Ringer Finger 1. C. The person who catches the bride’s bouquet or garter when she tosses it over her head will be the next to get married. 1. The story behi nd this tradition is downright dirty. In medieval times, it was considered lucky to get a fragment of the bride’s clothing, so hordes of guests would follow the newlywed couple into their wedding chamber after the ceremony and stand around the bed, trying to rip pieces of the bride’s gown right off her body.Because dresses were often torn apart, brides searched for alternatives to preserve their gowns and began throwing their bouquets to distract guests while they made their getaway. When the bride and groom made it safely into their wedding chamber, the groom would then crack open the door and toss the bride’s garter to the throngs of people waiting outside as a way of saying that he was about to â€Å"seal the deal. † D.The groom must carry his new wife across the threshold of their new home to prevent bad luck. 1. In ancient cultures, the threshold of the home was considered to be a hotbed of lurking, unattached evil spirits, and since a new bride was particularly vulnerable to spirit intrusion, especially through the soles of her feet, the groom ensured that his wife would not bring any bad spirits into the house by carrying her inside. Conclusion

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Improvement of communication Essay

Communication is an important ingredient in everyday relationships. As interactions are inevitable, much of what is going on with our relationships – in terms of work, home life, community dealings, friendships, and even ordinary and regular contact with strangers – all these depend on how effective we are in conveying thoughts, feelings, and intentions. And by the way, because communication includes at least two parties, its effectivity depends on how well or uninterrupted the exchange of ideas will flow. Everyone involved is important to the success of communication – the receiving end (the one party) and the one conveying ideas (the other party). Since not a single party should become dominant in any interactions, what particular characteristic ought to distinguish every an effective communicator? As always pointed out by experts in communication skills, the most critical part of an interaction is active listening. It comprises more than giving the other party your affirmative nod. It is even more than being physically present. Active listening includes the engagement of the whole cognitive faculty of the person. This means that if one is to possess this very important skill, he/she must exert effort to attend to the person who transmits his/her thoughts and engage all attention to process the ideas being passed on by paraphrasing, â€Å"reflecting feeling and reflecting meaning† (Citation Becoming a Better Senior Corps Supervisor: A Resource Guide for Senior Corps Project Directors, 1996). â€Å"Active listening includes listening with the body, eyes, ears and instincts, and temporarily suspending judgment. † This is essentially what active listening does. When speaking about improving one’s skills in communication, one characteristic must come right away to one’s mind: active listening. I have employed someone to help me in ordinary house work inside our home. I really do not need someone to attend to these things in my house since I myself can do the work myself. My intention is to be of some help to this person financially. He is so poor in communication skills. He even has difficulty expressing in words what he has in mind at the moment. He could not describe properly daily occurrences, and deficient in active listening. As a result of this lack on his part, all of us in the house oftentimes get drained emotionally for constantly exerting effort just to make sure he understands how to do ordinary work properly – from frying eggs for breakfast to taking initiative on those things which we assume he already know. I realized that lacking the fundamental skill necessary in communication can even get a person in danger of being fired from work. Communication is an art because like the work of art, it requires necessary skills to accomplish a work in which one has invested all his attention to secure a work well done. Reference 1. Becoming a Better Senior Corps Supervisor: A Resource Guide for Senior Corps Project Directors, by the National Crime Prevention Council and published by the Corporation for National and Community Service (1996), was developed by the National Crime Prevention Council’s National Service Training and Technical Assistance Project and is based upon work funded by the Corporation for National Service under Cooperative Agreement No. CA95-30. Accessed July 17, 2007< file:///D:/Documents%20and%20Settings/alan/My%20Documents/communication%20skils. htm>.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Locate an article on a controversial subject where the author makes an Essay

Locate an article on a controversial subject where the author makes an argument you do not agree with - Essay Example The data they used to defend their position was that of crime rates in the US in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Truly, the crime rates for 1970s and 1980s were high compared to 1990s. The two authors claim that the reduced crime rates in 1990s was due to the legalization of abortion in the US in 1973. To them, legalization of abortion led to reduction of unwanted babies. They based their claims on the ground that males of ages 18-24 are most likely to commit crimes. By 1990s, babies born from 1973 were 17 years and above. A reduction of crime rates in 1990s therefore meant that most of those who commit crimes are people originating from unwanted/unplanned pregnancies. I dispute the above claims. First, the rate of murder of 14-17 year in 1993 was 3.6 times that of 14-17 year olds in 1984. The first lot was born during the high-abortion period of 1975-1979 while the second lot was born during the pre-legalization period of 1966-1970. This means legalization of abortion had little impact on crime rates among those born post-legalization period. Secondly, if legalization reduces crime rates, a decline in crime should therefore have started from the youth. Contrasting to the above fact, reduction in crime was first recorded among the older people, those born pre-legalization period.

Bulgaria and the European Union Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Bulgaria and the European Union - Essay Example Although Bulgarian has implemented significant institutional changes, it still must overcome its past and some important domestic hurdles. This research paper will explore the accession of Bulgaria into the ranks of the European Union through an analysis of the process, as well as the challenges this country faces within the EU framework. This is important, not only for Bulgaria and current EU member states but also for future EU enlargement. Accordingly, accelerated Europeanisation will be discussed with reference to the Bulgarian case in the European Union (Richardson 2001, p. 44; Nugent 2003, 23-33; see Warleigh 2004). The EU is a supranational body composed of constituent member states, found largely on the European peninsula. Democracy, negotiation, and collective decision-making through multilateralism are all inherent attributes of the modern EU. As a multinational organization, the EU represents various national interests within an overarching political framework. The EU is an international organization which operates on the basis of negotiation between member states and relies on collective decision-making to achieve its ends. ... Although there were initially only five members of the precursor to the European Union (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and West Germany), there are presently 27 countries in the EU and they are, in alphabetical order, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and finally, the United Kingdom. Countries currently seeking membership in the EU include parts of the former Federal State of Yugoslavia as well as Turkey. A political and economic powerhouse, this intergovernmental organization is estimated to account for up to 30% of the world's total Gross Domestic Product (see Warleigh 2004). Although it has not always been the case, modern-day Europe is characterized by a unifying democratic political culture. While the concept of democracy originated on its shores, the philosophy of democratic governance was challenged in 20th century Europe by authoritarian political movements, including fascism (expressed by Nazi Germany & Mussolini's Italy), and communism (as exemplified in Eastern Europe during the Cold War). With Allied victory in World War II and the recent collapse of the Soviet Union, democracy - in varying degrees- is now a universal trend amongst European states. In fact liberal democracy, best expressed by the states of Western Europe with entrenched democratic traditions, is quickly becoming the standard for the continent. Democratic norms and rules have subsequently been established

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The significance of the veil in Islam. Why has it become so popular Essay

The significance of the veil in Islam. Why has it become so popular - Essay Example Two forms of niqab styles exist, including a full niqab, which leaves thin slits on the eyes and a half niqab, which exposes the eyes as well as a portion of the forehead. These veils are popular among Muslims, especially those residing in Gulf States (Murphy 2009). Within Europe and other Western states, on the other hand, the use of niqab has raised major debate. Various politicians suggest it should be banned while others stipulate that it raises concerns about security as well as restricts communication. Furthermore, the chador is a veil having the length of a full body. Although it covers a person’s head, the face is visible entirely. These kinds of veils are mostly black and found in the Middle East, especially in Iran. In addition, the burqa veil covers the entire body of the wearer. An individual can only see through the mesh screen left for the eyes. This kind of veil is dominant in Pakistan and Afghanistan (Women in World History, 2013). Veils characterized by diverse shapes and colours were customary in diverse cultures even before Islam was introduced to the world. Up until today, for instance, coverings on the head play a major role in diverse religions, such as Catholicism, and Orthodox Judaism. Nonetheless, Islam has emerged to serve as a dominant religion in the world since the seventh century. As the religion, grew, it adopted veiling customs also influenced other religions. Nonetheless, in the recent years, various Islamic states including Iran have implemented measures where all women must wear the veil (Why Islam, 2011). Most individuals who criticize the veiling tradition by Muslims argue that women are coerced to wear the veils rather than making their choices. By contrast, young Muslim immigrants found in the West stipulate that a veil should serve as a symbol of piety and devotion where one chooses whether to wear one or not. They argue that a veil represents self-expression and religious identity.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Critique of a Political Speech Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Critique of a Political Speech - Essay Example As I analyzed his delivery, I noticed a disconnect between the words that were on the page and the way he was delivering them. Although a gifted orator, he lack the emotional connection that would make one believe that he not only wrote his own speech, which he probably did not, but that he actually believed in what he was asking the people and congress to believe in. President Obama came to the White House with very little known about his work experience by the public. He was only a fresh senator with only 2 years of legislative work under his belt at the time he began his presidential campaign. Even with all his political shortcomings in terms of work experience and the like, those who covered him during the campaign were all wowed by his most remarkable asset. They all agreed that he was a gifted orator who knew how to truly engage his audience and sway them towards his beliefs by the time that he came to the end of his speech. Sadly, serving as our president did not seem to culti vate that aspect of his oratorical talent. His previous American Job Act speech left many wanting, for his speech was full of words but short in substance. He began his speech with what I believe to be the most self serving opening in the history of speeches: Tonight we meet at an urgent time for our country. We continue to face an economic crisis that has left millions of our neighbors jobless, and a political crisis that has made things worse. This past week, reporters have been asking "What will this speech mean for the President? What will it mean for Congress? How will it affect their polls, and the next election?" His ethos in the previous paragraph was supposed to show us his authority over Congress and make us believe that he is in the best position to help the public interests because he understands the social situation and knows how to solve it. He is after all, the president of the country. Its penultimate leader and father to all those residing in this great land. Instea d, his opening paragraph shows us that he was thinking more about political survival more than anything else. The ethos of his speech veers more on the intrinsic side as we all know that he is not, and will never be one of those common-folk who shall be extremely affected by high gas prices, mortgage problems, or even, loss of jobs, he won't even have a dwindling 401k portfolio. He is obviously conscious of that fact as he never mentions those pressing problems faced by normal people. He chose to open his speech talking about his re-election instead. An opening which, in my honest opinion, weakened the ethos of his whole speech. His speech however, offers a strong argument in terms of pathos that the listeners and others affected by our current socio-political climate can get behind and support. He presented the following argument in support of his American Job Act Bill towards the middle part of his speech: The next election is fourteen months away. And the people who sent us here – the people who hired us to work for them – they don't have the luxury of waiting fourteen months. Some of them are living week to week; paycheck to paycheck; even day to day. They need help, and they need it now. The people who helped draft Pres. Obama's speech were very conscious of the fact that the American public is now very restless and clamoring for change and action from the government. From those who are in power right now. The speech, at

Sunday, August 25, 2019

The Secret Behind Music Industry Research Paper

The Secret Behind Music Industry - Research Paper Example The other secret involves building some diversity. For instance, when one is building some roster for management, he or she should pick bands that are of the same gender. The bands should be of the same scene, and this is because the bands will have to play together and influence chances off every other including matching the managers music taste. Here, the negatives are usually disregarded while the positives are quite considered. Therefore, in order for one to venture into the music industry, he or she should consider diversity quite remarkably seriously. When one follows such a path, his or her responsibilities will be equal across the music genres. One should not work in only one area. Partnerships and missions also are some of the secrets of the music industry. Almost all bands should purpose to sit down and make some writing about two separate documents. The two documents should form the stamina of the band’s working relationship, and this is whichever one is playing in his or her grandma’s stadium. The first document, in which case it involves the partnership, should contain the names of people in the band, creative splits between the members of the band, the financial agreements, parting agreements, and sharing of money from the band. The second document, in which case it involves the mission statements, should address why every member is playing in the band, including what the band is trying to achieve. The stamen should be realistic and should be re-examined after some period (Byron). The other secret behind the music industry involves the press shots. Press shots are the most significant tools that the bands have at their disposal. However, there exists some crucial... The paper describes the secret about the music industry which involves connection or rather just a plan. The other secret behind the music industry, and which is quite advantageous, involves personal branding. In fact, most of the band managers name their companies using their own names and also booking agents transfer from one booking agency to another, but they have to pull their own brand across with them. Personal branding should not be taken as too personal, in which case one will lose a lot. The last secret involves putting the budget as the first consideration. One should look for a producer who is able to market him or her. Indeed leading producers are quite exclusive, and hence, one should put enough consideration to the budget. Budgeting is crucial in the music industry because one has to record the music, promote, press, and also create some video clips. Lastly, the current world involves the use of technology, in which case the internet and other new electronic allotment platforms play the prominent role, the new artist can display their talents to any person that may be having the computer or any portable electronic device. Some can use the internet to hear from the artist. In addition, the paper talks that most youthful people like using the internet, and hence, the internet will play a big role in the music industry.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Law Enforcement's use of public surveys Research Paper

Law Enforcement's use of public surveys - Research Paper Example With this kind of understanding, this paper precisely investigates homicide of a mayor. Inclusively in the paper is an in depth description of the roles played in the investigation, the purpose and use of a psychological autopsy, the various steps undertaken in carrying out psychological autopsy, and recognition of the psychological issues experienced by the officers and families. Roles Played in the Investigation. The carrying out of the investigation will be made possible with the help of a police psychologist. In this sense, as a police psychologist there are several roles which need to be accomplished accordingly with immediate effect. It should be noted that, the police psychology is always concerned with solving issues particularly concerning to public safety in order to facilitate peaceful coexistence (Brian, 2006). Various roles played by the police psychologists in the investigation will involve the recognition of deception, undercover interviewing, behavioral analyses of th e scene, and report analyses. In order to come up with clear information concerning the death of the mayor, it will be important to recognize the deception involved following his death. This will in turn call for the undercover consultation which will be aimed towards facilitating the necessary and required information for the success of the investigation (Weiss, 2010). ... It is evident that, the whole investigation will rely on police psychologist who will be responsible for the bringing together of the aspects based on the investigative information (Cox, 2004). The roles of the police psychologists will therefore be based on presumptions and the manner in which rule enforcement executive can be sustained through scientific investigate. The Function and Use of a Psychological Autopsy Psychological autopsy simply refers to the process for examining an individual death through reconstructing what the individual â€Å"thought, felt, and did prior his death.† The process of reconstruction will be linked in the lead of the information collected from police reports, personal documents, head to head interviews with families and friends, and any person who had contact with the mayor before his death (Jack, 2011). In our case, psychological autopsy will rely on these facts in order to be in position to identify the gunshot wound on the head which could be the reason for the death of the mayor. As it comes from the denotation, the major function of psychological autopsy therefore is to appraise more exactly the death procedure of the decedent and therefore elucidate the concluding categorization of the demise manner in the death official document. In this sense, the process functions in determining the reason for the death by investigating the bodily condition of the deceased (Weiss, 2010). In instances where the way of death is unsolved and unclear, psychological autopsy helps the medical expert in clearing up the secrecy. The gathered information indicates that, before becoming the mayor he was a chief and hence was very close to several officers and administrators.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Debate on Relativism and the Absolute Truth Research Paper - 1

Debate on Relativism and the Absolute Truth - Research Paper Example This discussion stresses that many people, across various cultures, in the world have various notions about what they perceive to be true. On one hand, fundamental theologians advocate for the absolute truth. On the second side, the proponent of neo-modern ethics tends to question the traditional version about truth. Theologians and other theorists have taken the trouble of analyzing relativism with respect to the religious teachings. The puzzle emanates from the convictions built by a given society against certain morals. For instance, the scientific theories and the religious teaching about the existence of God do leads to many questions. A person may take a wild imagination about the existence of God, leading to a theory about the same. The consequence of such action would be emergence of a given theory. This paper makes a conclusion that one cannot preach the gospel while arguing on a middle ground. This view tends to suggest that a Christian teaching or a given notion belong to one of the two sides: absolute truth or wrong. For example, when a person falls in water, it is evident that the person would be wet. This outcome does not give any room for meddling between the person coming out of water when dry and the person coming out of water when wet. The revelation of the above action enables us to argue that absolute truth exists. While this appears to be so, many people tend argue or stagger when issues regarding Christianity are mentioned. For instance, how much truth should a Christian accept in relation to certain principle in Christianity.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Emerging trends in Human Resources Management Essay Example for Free

Emerging trends in Human Resources Management Essay Session Outcomes: †¢ Discover the global trends affecting human  resources management, †¢ Describe the impact these trends are having on  organizations and the management of human  resources, †¢ Develop an appreciation of the changing role of  human resources management in supporting  organizational strategy. Emerging Trends in Human Resources Management (HRM) †¢ How would you define or describe Human Resources  Management (HRM)? – What is it? – How do you define it? †¢ Turn to the person next to you and share your thoughts  regarding what you think what Human Resources  Management is. †¢ I will select a number of people to share what they came up with. †¢ You have 2 minutes to do this.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Financial Valuation for Microsoft Essay Example for Free

Financial Valuation for Microsoft Essay Using a percent of sales method of forecasting to forecast income statement and balance sheet items that will be used in the valuation. We have devised three different valuation Scenarios, Normal Case, Best Case and Worst Case Scenario. 2. The Sales growth varied under each scenario according to certain assumptions and outlooks about the company 3. Terminal Value is calculated by using the constant Gordon growth model from the horizon year to infinity and then discounting this horizon value to the present at the WACC. 4. After discounting FCFF and adding them to the terminal value. The resulting value is divided by number of shares to reach fair price.

Political Culture And Malaysia

Political Culture And Malaysia Abstract: Pre-1999 studies pictured Malaysia as having a subject political culture. The post-2008 survey data shows Malaysia having a participant political culture and a high level of participation. The 2008 elections which witnessed the emergence of a strong opposition in the parliament reflect the maturity of the Malaysian electorate which augurs well for democracy in the country. Keywords: Malaysian political culture, elections, electoral behaviour, reformasi, democracy The results of the 2008 elections in which the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN), lost two-thirds majority which it enjoyed, for half a century, to a loosely combined opposition parties, is argued by many to be the extension of the new idiom of politics created in 1998. The electoral change in 2008, according to several electoral studies, augurs well for the democratization of the country.  [1]   Projecting democracy for Malaysia entails an understanding of her political culture. A democratic form of participatory political system requires as well a political culture consistent with it.  [2]  It is sometimes termed the substructure of the state because its underlying values and beliefs influence the operation of all social and political organizations.  [3]  Political culture, derived from a structural-functional model of the political process, is defined as the political attitudes, beliefs, values and skills [within] an entire population, as well as those à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ within separate parts of that population.  [4]  It is the set of values within which a political system operates.  [5]  To Almond and Verba, it is the pattern of orientations to political objects among the members of the nation.  [6]  They divided orientations into cognitive, affective and evaluative dimensions. Cognitive orientation refers to knowledge of and belief about the political sy stem, its roles and the incumbents of these roles, its inputs, and its outputs. Affective orientation is feelings about the political system, its roles, personnel, and performance; while evaluative orientation is the judgments and opinions about political system and usually involves a combination of value standards and criteria with information and feeling. On this basis, Almond and Verba identified three cultural orientations: parochial, subject, and participant.  [7]  Parochialism is characterized by general ignorance about political objects. In subject political culture, citizens possess the requisite political knowledge without the sense that they could be effective political actors. Participant political culture combines knowledge about politics with a willingness to participate in the political process. After a period of some disuse, cultural approaches to understanding politics have experienced a revival in recent years. Scholars in the past did explore the political culture of Malaysia but with limited empirical evidence owing to the paucity of survey research. The contemporary political culture can, however, be analysed by using public opinion surveys conducted in Malaysia in recent years. This study reviews the findings of earlier studies on political culture which were based upon intuitive speculation supported by fragmentary evidence from several highly selective studiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.  [8]  This is followed by an examination of the existing political culture with the help of data from the survey conducted from 12 to 18 April 2008 in Peninsular Malaysia among 1,027 adult citizens. This random sample was stratified according to state, ethnicity, age and gender of the respondents. The distributions over age, ethnic groups and religions correspond to national figures. The interviews were conducted in Bahasa Malaysia, Mandarin, Tamil and English using the Computer Assisted Telephone Interview ( CATI) facilities of the International Islamic University Malaysia. Each interview lasted for about 25 minutes, on average. At a confidence level of 95 per cent, the survey results have a statistical precision of  ± 2.8 per cent of what they would be if the interviews were conducted with the entire voting age population residing in peninsular Malaysia. The questionnaire contained 38 items. This paper uses only part of the data (24 items) dealing with cognitive, affective and evaluational orientations and voting in the 2008 elections. The Traditional Political Culture Malaysia, with an area of 127,320 sq miles (329,758 sq km), is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and the newly created administrative capital for the federal government of Malaysia, Putrajaya. According to July 2009 estimate, Malaysia has a population of 28.31 million.  [9]  Malaysia is a multicultural society, with Malays (54.2 per cent), Chinese (25.3 per cent), Indians (7.5 per cent) and others (13.0 per cent) living side by side in peace. Malays along with the natives of Sabah and Sarawak (Eastern Malaysia), are officially classified as Bumiputra (sons of the soil, or indigenes). The non-bumiputras, consist mainly of the Chinese and the Indians whose large-scale immigration took place in the 19th century with colonization and modernization. Malaysias political culture is significantly impacted by the British colonial administration.  [10]  The British looked upon the Malays as intellectually deficient and lazy. They admired the Chinese for their industry, entrepreneurship and greed; while the Indians were viewed as cheap and compliant labour. Referring to Chinese and Indians, Lucian Pye characterized Malaysian politics as a confrontation of two incompatible cultures with different systems of values and behavioural norms.  [11]  Pye, however, missed out the Indians, perhaps because they are a minority. The Malays are Muslims; they speak Bahasa Malayu and maintain traditional customs and practices. They generally live in rural areas and their relations are based on mutual help, self-respect and the concept of brotherhood in Islam. All these impart a feeling of solidarity among the Malays. Malays refer to Malaysia, particularly Western Malaysia, as Tanah Melayu (the Land of the Malays) and they are very proud of it. Chandra Muzaffar argues that Malay political culture is a complex mix of elements inherited from the feudal tradition, Western values, and Islam.  [12]  Elections and the culture that accompanies it, the product of Western influence, are an integral dimension of Malay and Malaysian political culture. The factors that influence voting patterns are the product, among others, of Malay feudal history characterized by deference to the royalty, uncritical acceptance of state authority and subservience to governmental power. Malaysian political leaders expect and they do rec eive due respect and appropriate electoral support from the Malay electorate. The Malay government is known as kerajaan that refers to the raja who ruled from the pre-colonial courts. Members of parliament and state Legislative Assembly men are referred to as yang berhormat (he who is honoured), and sustain remarkable resiliency in office. The Malay political culture is parochial and passive; they tend to relieve anxieties created by political conflict by avoidance and silence and by repressing emotions in the hope that the problem will go away if matters are smoothed over.  [13]  Islam has also impacted on Malay political attitudes and orientations. Islam brought with it a feudal political culture in the 14th or the beginning of the 15th century and reinforced the feudalism of pre-Islamic Malaysia.  [14]   The Chinese derive their values from Confucian patterns and assumptions. According to Pye, the Chinese concept of power is one of an unambiguous leader or father figure to whom the subordinates dutifully obey. Both the omnipotent leader and his dutiful subordinates are assumed to be Chinese. Complaints of all sorts should be aired and redress sought from authority figures. The idea of a Chinese leader becoming the subordinate of a foreigner is culturally unthinkable. Thus, there is no role for minority leadership in a community dominated by a non-Confucian culture. It effectively means that the Chinese cannot be subservient to the Malay majority leadership. As a result, a large number of Chinese in Malaysia feel that a truly national politics is unattainable for them.  [15]  This makes the Chinese to opt out of the majority system and focus instead on special parochial groupings.  [16]  The Chinese political culture is aggressive; they tend to release anxieties created by pol itical conflict by voicing anguish to somebody and seek sympathy even from bystanders.  [17]   Of the current population, the Chinese are the most heterogeneous. Most of them confess to one or more of the three great religions of mainland China: Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism, and speak Hokkien, Hakka and/or Cantonese. This heterogeneity is reflected in their politics. Unlike the Malays, the Chinese were and are divided in their loyalties. Most of the Chinese supported the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), the component of the BN but many also identified with opposition leftist and reformist parties. Yet, the Chinese were relatively far more mobilized socially and politically than the Malays. Living in urban centres and economically better off, the Chinese had easy access to higher education which tended to make them politically better informed. Indians, oftentimes regarded as a minority race, have made significant contributions to the socio-political and economic development of Malaysia. The Indian community is generally found around the urban areas and suburban rubber estates. It is generally believed that most Indians in Malaysia are politically informed and they operate small businesses. Some Indians work as professionals or labourers. They are industrious and entrepreneurial but cherish their values and traditions. Indians are close-knit community and are deeply religious. Many Indians adhere to Hinduism, some of them profess Christianity and Islam. The earlier immigrants had forged strong ties with their homeland without forming a strong bonding with their adopted country. The 1970s and 1980s generation regard Malaysia as their homeland. The Indian community has been perceived as passive and parochial. They did not cause much anxiety to the imperial rulers. They are culturally divided and their cultural diversity may be identified with their ancestors places of origin. They are mainly Hindu Tamils from southern India, speaking Tamil, Telegu, Malayalam, and some Hindi. In the post-independent Malaysia, the Indians do not form majority of their own in any Malaysian constituency. Hence most of them opted to support the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC) which is a component of the ruling Barisan Nasional, in order to gain access to the Barisan system of the ethnic apportionment of political power and material resources. However, a small segment of the Indian community supported opposition. Malaysias multi-ethnicity made it imperative for the elites of each ethnic group to unite in a mutually beneficial fashion. The resultant system is a variant of conosciational democracy in which elections play an important role to fill in the public positions.  [18]  In procedural terms, however, Malaysian political system is considered narrow because it constrains the practice of civil and political rights through restrictions on assembly, the strategic use of detention orders and other legal and emergency powers. Yet, the pioneering survey of political attitudes in Malaysia conducted in November 1994 found majority of 395 respondents, selected randomly, supported limited practice of democracy.  [19]  According to Welsh, Malay respondents overall opposed the expansion of democracy; the minorities, especially the Indian respondents, favoured democracy, while the Chinese respondents were more ambivalent.  [20]  There was some sort of congruence between political culture an d regime type. In the elections held between 1959 and 1995, the ruling coalition, the BN, constantly maintained two-thirds majority of seats in the parliament as shown in Table 1. Table1: Results of Parliamentary Elections, 1959 to 1995 Year Alliance/BN Opposition Parties Total Seats Seats Per cent Seat Per cent 1959 74 51.8 30 48.2 104 1964 89 58.5 15 41.5 104 1969 66 48.4 37 51.6 103 1974 135 60.7 19 39.3 154 1978 131 57.2 24 42.8 154 1982 132 60.5 22 39.5 154 1896 148 57.3 29 41.5 177 1990 127 54.4 53 46.6 180 1995 162 65.1 30 34.8 192 Source: Abdul Rashid Moten and Tunku Mohar Mokhtar, Elections and the Electoral System in Malaysia at 50: Achievements and Aspirations, edited by Syed Arabi Idid (Singapore: Thomson Learning, 2008), 199. State and Society in Transition Political cultures, though often highly stable, are not immutable. They may evolve over time, and may even be profoundly altered in a short span of time. This change may result from the spread of mass education, technological development, globalised discourses of human rights and the like. Voluntary associations and popular movements may help with the formation of new identities.  [21]  In the Malaysian context, the intense economic development programme pursued by the government over the years has led to the transformation of the state, Islamic organizations and civil societies. The political identities of the Malay, Chinese, Indian and other communities have likewise undergone changes.  [22]   The British, during the colonial period, pursued policies that created an imbalance in development between the urban sector involved in tin mining and rubber plantation and the rural sector engaged in small scale agriculture. Post-independent leaders pursued policies that aimed not merely at developing the economy and alleviating poverty but also at narrowing the differential development gap among various groups. The national development policies outlined in the Five Year National Development Plans (NDPs) in the earlier phase concentrated on improving the living standards of the rural society by providing facilities for infrastructure, social services and agricultural development. Since 1971, the government, under what was called the New Economic Policy (NEP), embarked upon a socio-economic restructuring affirmative action programme. The NEP aimed at promoting national unity and a just society by attacking poverty and reducing and eventually eliminating the identity of race with econ omic function.  [23]  In 1990, the post-NEP era began with Vision 2020 which espoused a commitment to forging a Bangsa Malaysia, a united Malaysian nation with a sense of a common and shared destiny under the leadership of Mahathir Mohamad, who served as Prime Minister from 1982 to 2003. That became the basis of the National Development Policy that aimed, among others, to strike an optimum balance between the goals of economic growth and equity.  [24]   Malaysia, under a soft authoritarian regime led by Mahathir Mohamad, made good economic progress, technological development and considerable rural-urban migration.  [25]  However, the growth was accompanied by an element of patronage leading to significant leakages and disproportionate gains to individuals and companies, such as the Renong, Technology Resources, Berjaya and Tanjong groups, associated with UMNO, the dominant party in the BN, the ruling coalition.  [26]  This state-capital nexus in Malaysia is termed party capitalism or money politics. Nevertheless, the economy grew at an average annual rate of 7 per cent during the 1990s. GDP per capita rose from RM 1,090 in 1970 to RM 14,924.3 in 2000. During 1970 to 2000, employment in agriculture shrank from 53.2 per cent to 15.2 per cent while employment in manufacturing increased from 9.0 per cent to 27.6 per cent. Literacy rate for the corresponding period rose from 58.1 per cent to 87.4 per cent. There was also a marked reduction in both rural and urban poverty.  [27]  Between 1981 and 1989, economic growth averaged 5.4 per cent which rose to 8.8 per cent between 1990 and 1996. The middle class expanded from 20 per cent of the working population in 1970 to approximately 45 per cent by 1993.  [28]  The rapid expansion of the middle class is considered as an impetus to liberalization and democratization in Malaysia. It has given rise to a consumer culture and a lifestyle dominated by shopping malls, restaurants, and Western-owned fast-food outlets.  [29]  Interestingly, this new Malay middle class was suffering from alienation presumably because they did not benefit from party capitalism by joining the elite group who enjoyed the state patronage. The growth of the middle class led to the emergence of civil societies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Aliran was established in August 1977 for the reform of Malaysian society guided by universal spiritual and moral values. It launched its publication Aliran Monthly in 1980. SUARAM (Suara Rakyat Malaysia, or Voice of the Malaysian People) was established in 1987 to promote freedom of expression, assembly and association. HAKAM (Persatuan Kebangsaan Hak Asasi Manusia or The National Human Rights Soceity) was formed in 1990 to work on human rights issues. Tenaganita (Womens Force) was established in 1991 to promote the rights of women workers and migrant workers. In 1993, some 50 NGOs adopted The Malaysian Human Rights Charter. Evidently, these organizations advocate various social, economic, cultural and political causes, interests, and agendas.  [30]  They have been instrumental in initiating positive changes in various spheres of life. They have helped Malaysians eng age in networking and increase their strength and confidence to solve problems with or without government assistance. Malaysians have learned to form groups, organise meetings and rallies, improve means of communication and gain new knowledge. These associations have been critical of various government policies and voiced their concern in public. Indeed, civil societies became more vocal during the reformasi period.  [31]   Reformasi and the Changes in the Electoral Behaviour In July 1997 money speculators attacked the Malaysian currency which eventually plunged the country into first recession for many years. The financial crisis widened the differences between Prime Minister Mahathir and his ambitious deputy Anwar Ibrahim who was seen as conspiring to overthrow the Prime Minister which became overt in June 1998 at the UMNO party elections in which one of Anwars supporters openly criticised Mahathir for economic mismanagement. The speech came too close on the heels of the Indonesian anti-KKN (kolusi, korupsi dan nepotisme, or collusion, corruption and nepotism) reformasi movement that toppled Suharto in May, a month earlier.  [32]  Mahathir blamed currency speculators especially George Soros for the financial crisis whereas Anwar Ibrahim blamed it upon Mahathirs obsession with unproductive mega projects and nepotism. Mahathir would not seek assistance from the International bodies to overcome the crisis while Anwar was fully committed to adopting res cue package from International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Subsequent expulsion from the party, arrest and imprisonment of Anwar Ibrahim, on charges of misuse of power and immoral conduct, triggered the movement for reform, reformasi, demanding participatory democracy and justice for all.  [33]  The movement drew new actors, namely Malay women, youth and sections of the Malay middle class.  [34]   NGOs and civil societies cooperated and coordinated their anti-government actions. Numerous street demonstrations that followed led to the formation of Gagasan Demokrasi Rakyat (Coalition for Peoples Democracy or Gagasan), on 27 September 1998, composed of 18 political parties and organizations. Gagasans 10-point joint declaration demanded freedom of speech and assembly, impartial judiciary and the abolition of detention without trial and the draconian Internal Security Act. There also emerged Gerakan Keadilan Rakyat Malaysia (Malaysian Peoples Movement for Justice or Gerak) composed of various Muslim non-governmental organizations but included the opposition political parties like Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Partai Se-Islam Se-Malaysia (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, PAS). December 1998 saw the emergence of the Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial (Movement for Social Justice or Adil) under the leadership of Anwar Ibrahims wife, Wan Azizah Ismail, which pressed for political, economic and social reform. Adil, in 1999, metamorphosed into the multi-ethnic Parti Keadilan Nasional (National Justice Party or keADILan). Subsequently, KeADILan, DAP, PAS and Parti Rakyat Malaysia (Malaysian Peoples Party, PRM) formed an opposition alliance known as the Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Coalition, BA). Simultaneously, several reformasi-related websites emerged demanding more democratic space, accountability of the rulers and a participatory political system. The first reformasi website, Anwar On-line, was launched on September 1, 1998 and was followed within a few months by over fifty pro-Anwar and pro-reform websites. Well developed professional sites include AIM (Abolish the ISA Movement), Aliran Online, HarakahDaily, Bereita Keadilan, the Free Anwar Campaign, etc. The countrys first commercial on-line newspaper, Malaysiakini, was launched just nine days prior to the general election of 1999. The number of internet users rose from about 500,000 in 1999 to an estimated two million in 2002. The Internet was relatively free from government control and was an important venue for political discourse. The internet has created dense networks linking geographically dispersed activists that constitute themselves into the building blocs for bottom-up democratisation process.  [35]  As society has changed, with demographic shifts reinforced by new information technologies and globalization process, political culture has changed, too, particularly among the younger generation.  [36]  Malaysians became active citizens and took it upon themselves to know, to feel and to evaluate the policies emanating from the political system and to vote accordingly. This is clear from the voting behaviour of the Malaysian electorate in the 10th, 11th and 12th general elections. The tenth elections for parliamentary and state assemblies were held on November 29, 1999 preceded by a nine-day campaign period. The elections saw many non-governmental organizations in the forefront making their voices heard through various mechanisms including the use of internet. The BA contested the November 1999 elections with a joint manifesto: Towards a Just Malaysia free from widespread corruption, abuse of power and crippling poverty. The manifesto promised a strong national economy, enhanced government transparency and accountability, national unity and a genuinely democratic society. They took full advantage of the Internet to disseminate information. The opposition front made startling gains winning 45 out of 193 seats in the national parliament. PAS, the major component of the BA, not only retained the state of Kelantan but it also captured the neighbouring, oil-rich Terengganu. Four Malay cabinet ministers and the chief minister of Terengganu lost in the election. Prim e Minister Mahathirs winning margin in Kubang Pasu constituency in Kedah had shrunk by about 40 per cent from 1995. Most of BN candidates won with slim margins. The eleventh general elections were held on March 21, 2004 in which the BN won unprecedented 62.37 per cent of the votes and 90.4 per cent of seats in Parliament and recaptured Terengganu lost in 1999. This result shows maturity on the part of the Malaysian electorate for three reasons. One, the leadership of BN has changed. Abdullah Badawi who took office on October 31, 2003 was perceived as friendly and a man of the people. His fight against corruption; insistence on public accountability and shift from corporate mega-projects to agro-based, rural projects were well received by the electorate tired of corruption and confrontational politics.Two, the BN adopted the core reformasi demands of accountability, transparency and good governance. Its manifesto described BN as moving Toward Excellence, Glory, and Distinction. Three, the opposition front, BA, that performed well during the 1999 elections could not continue to work as a team. The cordiality between the parties waned and some of them suffered from financial difficulties and mass defections. The opposition parties contested against each other in many constituencies. Under the circumstances, the best bet for the Malaysian electorate was to vote BN. The reforms Abdullah instituted during the following four years did not meet the public expectation. A number of factors contributed to a rising discontent among Malaysians including rising crime, a number of corruption scandals, the weaknesses of the judicial system, and interferences with the appointment of senior judges and increased food and fuel prices. The opposition parties joined hands under the leadership of Anwar Ibrahim and capitalized on the public anger over transparency and accountability. Using alternative media, they highlighted the weaknesses of the government and campaigned effectively in the twelfth elections held on March 8, 2008. The electorate reversed their earlier decision in the 2008 elections denying the ruling coalition its two-thirds majority in parliament and giving the opposition parties control of 5 state assemblies. The reformasi movement is considered by many to be a clear manifestation of a change in Malaysias political culture. They reshaped the configuration of forces and, since then, Malaysian politics has changed. According to Jomo, the reformasi liberated the Malaysian and, in particular, the Malay political discourse.  [37]  Since 1998, writes Francis, a new discourse and practice of participatory democracy has gained ground among Malaysiansà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.  [38]  Meredith Weiss is emphatic: Reformasi marked a shift in Malaysian politics.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Whatever degree of institutional change has so far occurred, Malaysian political culture now leans more toward new politics-characterized by fragmentation of ethnic communities and contesting discourses of ethnicism, participatory democracy, and developmentalismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.  [39]   Andres Ufen argues that the Malaysian opposition has succeeded in establishing a viable pro-democratic political culture that is hardly destructible through sheer repression.  [40]   The landslide victory achieved by the BN under Abdullah Badawi in 2004 is also a reflection of the maturity of the Malaysian electorate. Citizens voted with the belief that the new government would be responsive to their needs, wants, and purposes which is an ess

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Lost Love Essay -- essays research papers

My Lost Love It was ever so dark that evening. It hurt to look at her. It was like looking at my heart barely beating on the floor. I couldn't stand it. Love never hurt me this much. I can't believe this happened. Why me? Why her? Why us? In an instant it was over. I remember the first time we met. It was actually kind of funny. She was walking her dog. Actually, the dog was walking her. I was reading a poem and walking along. When all of the sudden, we collided. The second I looked up into her eyes, I fell for her harder than an avalanche off of Mount Everest. I think she felt the same way because we didn't look away for what seemed like 5 hours. We talked in the park for about an hour and a half. She told me her name was Kristeen Thorne and told me that she was a new student at Orangeville High School; the same school I attended. We found that we had six out of seven classes together, which was a very good thing. I asked her to go out with me that Friday night. We went to the movies first, and then we went to Vinnie Vicci's Italian restaurant. The date was perfect and the person I was with made the date seem like Heaven. We dated non- exclusively for about one month. On our one month anniversary, I gave her my letter jacket which I earned playing varsity football. And while I did that, I asked her to date exclusively. She answered my question so fast I didn't realize that she said yes. We started going out together almost every weekend and talked on the phone all night and walked with each other to class everyday, and I gave her a ride to and from school everyday. We had been going out for about 3 months. The student body voted us cutest couple of the year. We had to get our pictures taken for the year book. We went to the spring dance together and were voted the king and queen of the dance. Then the school year came to an end. That summer we spent most of the time together. We went to Kyber Lake for the Fourth of July weekend. My dad let us borrow his boat for the weeken d, and we stayed at a camp ground. On Friday, when we got there, I took the boat for a test drive to see if it was still running. It's was working. I took her to the little secret cove that only I knew. We stayed in that cove for about 2 hours just talking and kissing and gazing at each other. At that time, the only thing I was hoping for was that this moment never would end. When I look... ...d all he can do is stare. Tell my sister not to cry. Tell Dad to be brave. And when I go to heaven, put "Daddy's Girl" on my grave. Someone should have told him, not to drink and drive. If only they had told him, I would still be alive. My breath is getting shorter. I'm becoming very scared. Please don't cry for me. When I needed you, you were always there. I have one last question, before I say good bye. I didn't drink and drive, so why am I the one to die?" " I know I have to get on with my life, but I will always love and cherish you. Our love will always be like the stars eternal shine." I said as I wiped the tears from my face. " One more thing before I go, I love you! Remember that!" I looked at her grave imagining her face. I stood there for a couple of minutes not saying a word. Then I turned and began to walk to my car. When I got into the car, I sat there, remembering, one at a time, all the things we did together. The final thing I sa w was the twinkle in her eye and the smile on her face when she promised me that she would never leave me. Then I drove home knowing, I would never get to kiss her sweet, gentle lips good night ever again.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Social Roles in Society Essay -- Sociology Psychology Essays

Social Roles in Society Social psychology, as defined by the Microsoft Bookshelf, is the branch of human psychology that deals with the behavior of groups and the influence of social factors on the individual. Social roles are one of the many sub - categories of social psychology. I believe social roles to be the way we, as individuals, act in certain situations; such as home life, educational and economic statue, peer groups, etc. The Prison Simulation by Haney, Banks & Zimbardo is just one of the vast studies in this area. In this study we will see how people take roles in life, and in simulated life situations. Social roles are not fictitious, it is in fact a very real occurrence that many people deal with ever day, whether it be with them selves or with other individuals. The Prison Simulation, studied by Haney, Banks & Zimbardo is quite impressive as to how extensive the study actually is. Due to lack of length in this paper the synopsis dealing with this study will be brief. The experiment consisted of 24 voluntary men who were divided into two groups: Guards and Inmates. Both groups were given uniforms to encourage their roles in the prison scenario. The subjects immediately began to take on rolls as to how they thought they should act. The prison had a much greater impact on all persons than could have been anticipated. The study was supposed to last 14 days, but due to extreme emotional depression the study ended after 6 days. In the spring of 1998, my Law a...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Giorgione: the Adoration of the Shepherds Essay -- Italian Art Paintin

Artist: Giorgione (*1477/1478; † 25.10.1510) Title: The Adoration of the Shepherds The Adoration of the Shepherd about 1505, oil on panel, 35 4/5" x 43 4/5" (91 x 111cm) National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA This essay attempts to describe analyze and evaluate the famous painting "The Adoration of the Shepherd" by Giorgione (originally Giorgio Barbarelli). In the following essay there will be three main sections: 1 Inventory - (WHAT?) 2 Formal Analysis - (HOW?) 3 Interpretation/Meaning (WHY?) The Inventory (I) will include: a.) subject matter b.) function/intention c.) description The Formal Analysis (II) will include: a.) Pictorial Elements i. Line ii. Form and shape iii. Colour iv. Space b.) Pictorial Elements i. Balance ii. Emphasis iii. Contrast iv. Pattern The Interpretation/Meaning (III) will be written without any guideline points, the aim of this part will be to determine what the painter wanted to express with his piece of work and what it tells us in a symbolic or not instantly clear way. This part will also handle why the artist drew the painting the way he did it and why he chose various techniques or tools. 1. About the Painter Giorgione or Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco was born in 1477 or 1478, the exact date is not known, in Castelfranco. Even though there were no more than about twenty paintings officially associated with him, of which only about six are attributed to him without doubt, his originality was so powerful that these few works have come to represent not only the first stage in the Venice High Renaissance, but a new trend in Italian art as well. Surviving documentation of his life and work is sparse. Giorgione d... the background so detailed? Giorgione "loved to paint landscapes." Especially in "The Adoration of the shepherds" you can see how much effort he invested in painting a detailed background in form of a piece of coast and part of a village. When isolated this part takes on a life of its own (If concentrating you can see tiny details such as two persons standing at the edge of the coast. Why is there a cow in the back of the cave? This cave is a stable and Jesus was born in a stable. This is the place where the messiahs saw daylight for the very first time in his life. The houses in the background are probably part of Bethlehem. What's the meaning of the completely blue sky in the background? Blue is the colour of hope and the birth of Jesus is the beginning of hope. Bibliography Discovering Art History; Gerald F. Brommer; Davis Publications, Inc.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Heat Stress in Workplac

August 2001 . HEATSTROKE / SUN STROKE This is not necessarily the result of exposure to the sun. It is caused by exposure to an environment in which the body can no longer rid itself of excess heat. As a result, the body soon reaches a point where the heat-regulating mechanism breaks down completely and the internal temperature rises rapidly. SYMPTOMS Hot , dry skin which maybe red or bluish, severe headache, visual disturbances, rapid temperature rise, The v ictim s h o u ld b e r e m v d fro m o e t h e h e a t i mm d i a t e l y e and c o o le d r a p id ly , u s u a lly by wra p p i n g i n c o o l , we t s h e e t s .PRECAUTIONS Acclimatization: Acclimatize workers to heat by giving them short exposures, followed by gradually longer periods of work in the hot environment. Mechanical Cooling: Forced ventilation and spot cooling by mechanical means (fans, blowers) are helpful in cooling. Using power tools rather than manual labour keeps the body cooler. Rehydration: W o r k e r s should be advised to drink water beyond the point of thirst (every 15 to 20 minutes) . High-carbohydrate diet tends to increase fluid absorption and caffinated beverages like coffee tend to increase Safety & Fire DepartmentFor more detailed information on Heat Stress, please refer to the proceeding pages. HEAT STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE Heat stress includes a series of conditions where the body is under stress from overheating. It can include heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat rash or heat stroke. Each produces bodily symptoms that can range from profuse sweating to dizziness to cessation of sweating and collapse. Heat stress can be caused by high temperatures, heavy work loads, the type of clothing being worn, etc. It is important to know the signs of heat stress and the proper first aid to treat it. See Common Forms of Heat Stress and recommended first aid on page 4). The signs of heat stress are often overlooked by the victim. The employee may at first be confused or unable to conce ntrate, followed by more severe symptoms such as fainting and/or collapse. If heat stress symptoms occur, move the employee to a cool, shaded area, give him water and immediately contact the supervisor. At Risk Employees Some employees are more likely to have heat disorders than others. Younger employees and those more physically fit are often less likely to have problems.Employees with heart, lung or kidney disease, diabetes and those on medications are more likely to experience heat stress problems. Diet pills, sedatives, tranquilizers, and caffeinated drinks can all worsen heat stress effects. It often takes two to three weeks for employees to become acclimatized to a hot environment. This acclimatization can subsequently be lost in only a few days away from the heat. Thus employees should be more cautious about heat stress after coming back from a vacation, when beginning a new job, or after the season’s first heat wave.In short, precautions should be taken anytime there are elevated temperatures (approaching 33 degrees C) and the job is physically demanding. Other Factors Other heat stress factors are also very important. In addition to temperature, increased relative humidity, decreased air movement or lack of shading from direct heat (radiant temperature) will all affect the potential for heat stress. Prevention of Heat Stress – Supervisors †¢ Allow time for employees to adjust to hot jobs when possible. It often takes two to three weeks for an employee to become acclimated to a hot environment. †¢ Adjust the work schedule, if possible.Assign heavier work on cooler days or during the cooler part of the day. †¢ Reduce the workload. Increase the use of equipment during the summer period to reduce physical labor. †¢ †¢ Establish a schedule for work and rest periods during hot days. Train workers to recognize signs and symptoms of heat stress disorders and be prepared to give first aid if necessary. †¢ Choose appr opriate employees. Avoid placing â€Å"high risk† employees in hot work environments for extended time periods. Realize individual employees vary in their tolerance to heat stress conditions. Prevention of Heat Stress – Site Workers Learn to recognize the symptoms of heat stress. Pace the work, taking adequate rest periods (in shade or cooler environment). †¢ Use adequate fans for ventilation and cooling, especially when wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). †¢ Site workers have to wear regulation overalls and hardhats. Always try to keep shaded from direct sunshine when possible. Your hardhat will not only protect your head from falling objects and such, but will also protect your head from direct sunshine. †¢ Drink plenty of water. In hot environments the body requires more water than it takes to satisfy thirst.Small quantities taken at frequent intervals, about 150-200 mL of water every 15 to 20 minutes is an effective method for body fluid rep lacement. COMMON FORMS OF HEAT STRESS Condition Heat Cramps Signs/Symptoms Painful muscle spasms First Aid Salt water intake (. 5% solution) Sport drink intake (Gatorade) Rest in cool environment Heavy sweating —————————————————————-Brief fainting Blurred vision Water intake Lie down in cool environment Heat Syncope —————————————————————-Dehydration Fatigue Reduced movement Fluid and salted food intakeHeat Exhaustion —————————————————————-Pale and clammy skin Lie down in cool environment Possible fainting Water intake Weakness, fatigue Loosen clothin g Nausea Dizziness Heavy sweating Blurred vision Body temp slightly elevated —————————————————————-Cessation of sweating Immediate, total cooling Skin hot and dry Transport to hospital Red face High body temperature Unconsciousness Collapse Convulsions Confusion or erratic behavior Life threatening condition —————————————————————–Heat Stroke Please direct any safety questions or concerns to SFE/2 the Safety and Fire Department, RAA. Tel: 440-2534

Friday, August 16, 2019

Development of Social and Emotional Identity

The interview was conducted with an adolescent 18 year-old sophomore at a Alternative Education Program named Phil (fictitious name for confidentiality). Phil was a senior athlete, majored in English and was on the honor roll. The interviewer asked the question, â€Å"How would you describe yourself,† Phil sat up straight and stated that he had some problems during his elementary, middle and high school because of his choice of peers some who smoked marijuana. Phil denies any psychiatric illness during this time. Phil relates that at the age of three, he struggled with his parents and siblings over autonomy issues, although his parents were very involved in his academic goals. The first years of school are an important if not critical arena time for social, identity and conflict-management skills. Gibbs, J.T., (1987) Phil stated as hockey practice began, he had a falling out with his teammates due to a girl he was dating which was a peer’s ex-girlfriend. Phil relates that he realized social acceptance from his peers to be very important at this time. Phil stated ‘feeling intense negative feelings from his teammates had leaded him to withdrawal†. Phil states that being an unpopular student made him react in ways that are inappropriate to the situation; he tried to join others by calling attention to himself, talking about other students, inserting his own opinions and feelings and asking informational questions just to fit in with people. In Phil’s sophomore year, he realized that he had to make accurate judgments about the social competence of his peers. When asked the question â€Å"How important is popularity at school?† Phil stated that popularity is a measure of a student’s social standing with peers. Studies that include observation of elementary, middle and high school student in the classroom and in the playground show that popular students have specific positive qualities that appeal to peers (and to their teachers, too) Gibbs, J.T., (1987). Phil also stated, â€Å"The students are people who value other people and know their own value to other people. Students are sought out as friends, and actively seek others out for friendship† (Phil, 2010) Phil, he states that social status can change at the drop of a baseball cap, such as the popular students are well liked by many children ( and adults), disliked by few, and they have emotionally close, long-lasting one-to-one friendships with peers. These students make friends easily and well, and they keep them. Their friendships are intimate and satisfying. Phil mentioned that he realized what he had been through and the sad truth is, once a student in elementary, middle and high school is rejected, because of their social status seems to be more a matter of default than the product of a specific behavior style. He goes on to say, â€Å"if one thing has become clear it is that social emotional and identity status becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.† (Phil, 2010) For most teenagers, adolescence is a time of fast growth physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. This period is mark by developing a sense of identity, self-esteem, and relationships with peers (Reference here). Although teens may experience new encounters and abilities during this period, it also can be painful as they try to make sense of the world and their place in it. Phil went on to say that in some students, the hyperawareness of social performance can bring on social anxiety and insecurity and shyness symptoms, as well a new image of themselves as shy and eager around others. In addition to Phil’s statement, he replied that the emphasis on emotional control of middle and high school students’ gives way to mature social problem solving in which emotion and social reasoning become integrated. Increasing maturity also brings the ability to make finer distinctions in the social behavior and acceptability of their peers (Phil, 2010). As the interview culminates, Phil mentions that even if victimized elementary, middle and high school students change the way they are with peers, they will not become popular overnight. It takes time to change negative reputation among peers. Phil states that increasing the social opportunities of all students, and those who have been victimized would help individual outcomes. Troubled children and students need to experience positive social interactions that can benefit many aspects of their lives (Phil, 2010).

Drugs and the Music Industry Essay

Throughout the years, drugs and music have been as synonymous as America and baseball. Especially within the past 50 years, this nation has experienced the birth, and death, of many genres of music due to rampant drug use. Sure, we all know that drugs are bad for you and that if you abuse them, they will eventually lead to your death, but these substances have created music that has inspired millions around the world, and who is to say that is a bad thing? We have all benefited in one way or another from a musicians use of mind altering chemicals or in some cases, plants, and this is an undeniable fact. Drugs have had an overall positive impact on the music industry. They have inspired, enlightened, expanded, and even destroyed the minds of some of Americas best musicians. However, no matter what happens to the musician, the drug fueled music that they have made lives on forever to inspire later generations of youth to join the revolution and create something worthwhile. Whether it be jazz, rap, rock, electronic, or even modern day pop, as long as people are out there creating music, there will be a new type of drug to fuel the fire. The history of drug use started with jazz musicians and their use of heroin, and led to the counterculture movement and their avocation of psychedelic drugs and marijuana. This in turn brought about the punk movement, who took drug use to an extreme that was not seen before. Although this drug use positively effects the musical aspect, it does destroy the lives of those who choose to take the risk. Many musicians have lost their lives to drug use which shows the fine line between just drug use, and drug abuse. Despite all the negatives, drugs have had a positive impact on the American music industry over the past 100 years. The whole thing started with a little thing called jazz. Down south and in the streets of Harlem, many famous jazz musicians were known to be hard drug users whose drug of choice was heroin. This drug could keep you up for days upon end with little to no food, allowing for hours and hours of practice and time to write beautiful works of art. (Winick) Famous musicians such as Ray Charles, Miles Davis, and Hank Mobley all were using this â€Å"hip† drug and their influence led to not only just other musicians using it to increase their playing abilities but also to the everyday listener. This caused a problem in the jazz community as more and more people were falling victim to this drug for all the wrong reasons. People were becoming hooked on this new jazz sensation. â€Å"In those days, people did not know the overwhelming addictive powers of heroin. The mistake they made was trying it just once. After they tried it, they were hooked, and the creativity part of it was no longer. It simply became an addiction.† (Winick) Once the creativity aspect left the equation, it just became another drug to be abused. However, almost all popular music to this day have heavy roots and jazz, which just goes to show that although it destroyed lives, the music created was greatly influential. Next came the infamous counterculture, the hippie movement of the 1960’s. This generation of peace and love highly advocated the use of marijuana and psychedelics such as LSD, mushrooms, mescaline, peyote, and MDMA. These drugs definitely showed up in the music of the decade. Bands such as the Beatles, Pink Floyd, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, and many others all took these psychedelics and entered a sort of trance that increased their composing and lyrical abilities. (Gillespie) Some people say that even in order to fully understand this music, one must be under the influence of some sort of drug. Since a lot, but not all, of the drugs that were done during this time period were not addictive, everyone seemed to be enjoying this movement without any inference. Much of the music created during this time period is still popular today and has a big impact on the youth, showing the positive effects of these drugs on the music industry at this time. The use of drugs in the music scene was at its most extreme during the Hardcore Punk movement of the 1980’s. This scene was entirely different from any that was experienced before. â€Å"Drug use also held initial significance in the movement; the inherent connection between recreational drug use and the production of rock music applied to the Hardcore movement just as it appeared in the music of the ’60’s.† (Cashbaugh) The punks took any drug that was available to them that was cheap and hit fast and hard. Inevitably, their drug of choice became speed because, â€Å"It was cheap, it was around, and you could play fast music on it. It also curtailed your appetite. In San Francisco, the Negative Trend guys literally lived on potatoes.† (Marzuk) This revolutionary drug let musicians play for days upon end with no sleep and little need for basic necessities. It may have taken a toll on their bodies, however the pure, raw energy it created was something never seen before. Drug use, however, does not increase your creativity. There is no scientific evidence that shows a direct correlation between drug and alcohol use and the creative parts of your brains. To the contrary, studies have shown that I actually limits the amount your brain functions. (summary, Cengage) However, the mainstream media portrays such a direct link between the two that when people take drugs, they convince themselves that they have these effects. The drugs almost act as a placebo for a person’s creativity. If you truly believe that taking drugs will help you write any type of music, then it most likely will, and vice versa. It all has to do with the perspective of the user and their outlook they have on drugs. Although drug use has positively influenced the quality of music over the years, it has also taken the lives of many fantastic musicians who crossed the line from use, to abuse. Musicians such as Jimi Hendrix, Janis, Joplin, Amy Winehouse, and countless others have all died due to some sort of drug or alcohol addiction. (Blindsider) Jimi Hendrix allegedly overdosed on sleeping pills. Janis Joplin overdoes on heroin. Amy Winehouse died due to alcohol intoxication. These were all supremely talented musicians who let the drugs get the better of them. At first the drugs were used for the rush and a creative boost, but they eventually turned into a habit that couldn’t be quit. Their music also glorified addiction and the use of the drugs that were killing them. This shows the fine line between just the simple use of drugs and the powerful force of addiction that can overtake you if you are not careful. It seems as if today’s music really romanticizes the use of drugs and alcohol, and in some cases, even advocates addiction. Tom Hamilton of Aerosmith even said, † he probably wouldn’t have come up with that great bass line from ‘Sweet Emotion’ had he not been high† (Bohlinger) This does not exactly promote a sober living, and no rock stars truly do, but it goes on to prove that drugs do in fact have a positive effect on musicians writing and playing abilities. However, this could become a bad thing for today’s youth. Seeing as many teens look up to musicians and pop stars who live a wild lifestyle, it may influences them to make stupid decisions that they otherwise wouldn’t have made. Drugs must be used with a purpose in mind, whether it be gaining an experience, making art, or writing music. Too many teens will destroy their lives just trying something for the thrill of the high or to just look cool. Over the past 20 years, â€Å"straight-edge† movements have been gaining in popularity. These groups make music and pledge to not take drugs or alcohol. It seems as if more and more teens are getting into these sober movements because they offer something different from the norm. It has become normal for musicians to be drunks and addicts and these teens are just looking for a change. These groups make one wonder whether or not the link between drugs and music is finally breaking down, or if this is just a small blip in the radar of music. Although the majority of evidence is against it, drugs still have made a positive effect on the music industry. They have paved the road for countless great bands, albums, and songs and have opened the doors of creativity to many musicians. This is very prevalent within the music of the Beatles. If it weren’t for marijuana and LSD, their success and experimentation would have been very limited. Albums such as Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band would have never been created and rock music as we know it would not have been the same. You can also see this within the music of many other old school rock and roll bands such as Aerosmith, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones, and many others. Their music has made a significant impact on all music today and if it were not for the drugs pumping through their bodies, these bands would not be half as famous as they are today. Works Cited Blindsider. â€Å"Rock Musicians Who Have Died From Drugs.† Listology. N.p., 29 Apr. 2009. Web. 31 May 2012. . Bohlinger, John. â€Å"Romanticizing the Drug Musician Mythos.† Premier Guitar. N.p., Nov. 2008. Web. 4 June 2012. . Cashbaugh, Sean. â€Å"Hardcore Using in the Scene.† web.wm. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2012. . Cengage, Gale. â€Å"Creativity and Drugs.† eNotes. N.p., 2001. Web. 31 May 2012. . Gillespie, Nick. â€Å"Everbody Must Get Stoned: Rock Stars on Drugs.† Reason. N.p., 13 May 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. . Marzuk, Jenny. â€Å"Mainstream Drug Use in America.† American Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2012. . Winick, Charles. Social Problems. N.p.: University of California Press, 1959. JSTOR. Web. 31 May 2012. .