Thursday, December 26, 2019

Cultural Ecology Connecting Environment and Humans

In 1962, anthropologist Charles O. Frake defined cultural ecology as the study of the role of culture as a dynamic component of any ecosystem and thats still a fairly accurate definition. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface of the earth has been transformed by human development. Cultural ecology argues that we humans were inextricably embedded in earth surface processes long before the invention of bulldozers and dynamite. Key Takeaways: Cultural Ecology American anthropologist Julian Steward coined the term cultural ecology in the 1950s.  Cultural ecology explains that humans are part of their environment and both affect and are affected by the other.  Modern cultural ecology pulls in elements of historical and political ecology as well as rational choice theory, post-modernism, and cultural materialism. Human impacts and cultural landscape are two contradictory concepts that may help to explain the past and modern flavors of cultural ecology. In the 1970s, concern over human impacts on the environment arose: the roots of the environmental movement. But, that isnt cultural ecology, because it situates humans outside of the environment. Humans are part of the environment, not an outside force making impacts on it. Discussing cultural landscapes—people within their environment—attempts to address the world as a bio-culturally collaborative product. Environmental Social Science Cultural ecology is part of a suite of environmental social science theories that provide anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers, historians, and other scholars a way to think about why it is people do what they do, to structure research and ask good questions of the data. In addition, cultural ecology is part of a theoretical division of the whole study of human ecology, broken into two parts: human biological ecology (how people adapt through biological means) and human cultural ecology (how people adapt through cultural means). Looked at as the study of the interaction between living things and their environment, cultural ecology involves human perceptions of the environment as well as the sometimes unperceived impacts of us on the environment and the environment on us. Cultural ecology is all about humans—what we are and what we do, in the context of being another animal on the planet. Adaptation and Survival One part of cultural ecology with immediate impact is the study of adaptation, how people deal with, affect and are affected by their changing environment. That is vital to our survival on the planet  because it offers understanding and possible solutions to important contemporary problems, like deforestation, loss of species, food scarcity, and soil loss. Learning about how adaptation worked in the past can teach us today as we grapple with the effects of global warming. Human ecologists study how and why cultures do what they do to solve their subsistence problems, how people understand their environment and how they share that knowledge. A side benefit is that cultural ecologists pay attention to and learn from traditional and local knowledge about how we really are part of the environment, whether we pay attention or not. Them and Us The development of cultural ecology as a theory has its start with a scholarly grappling with understanding cultural evolution (now called unilinear cultural evolution and abbreviated as UCE). Western scholars had discovered there were societies on the planet who were less advanced than elite white male scientific societies: how did that come about? UCE, developed in the late 19th century, argued that all cultures, given enough time, went through a linear progression: savagery (loosely defined as hunters and gatherers), barbarism (pastoralists/early farmers), and civilization (identified as a set of characteristics of civilizations such as writing and calendars and metallurgy). As more archaeological research was accomplished, and better dating techniques were developed, it became clear that developing ancient civilizations did not follow neat or regular rules. Some cultures moved back and forth between agricultural and hunting and gathering or, quite commonly, did both at once. Preliterate societies did build calendars of sorts—Stonehenge is the best known but not the oldest by a long way—and some societies such as the Inca developed state-level complexity without writing as we know it. Scholars came to realize that cultural evolution was, in fact, multi-linear, that societies develop and change in many different ways. History of Cultural Ecology That first recognition of the multi-linearity of cultural change led to the first major theory of the interaction between people and their environment: environmental determinism. Environmental determinism said it must be that the local environments in which people live force  them to select methods of food production and societal structures. The problem with that is that environments change constantly, and people make choices on how to adapt based on a wide range of successful and unsuccessful intersections with the environment. Cultural ecology arose primarily through the work of anthropologist Julian Steward, whose work in the American southwest led him to combine four approaches: an explanation of culture in terms of the environment in which it existed; the relationship of culture and environment as an ongoing process; a consideration of small-scale environments, rather than culture-area-sized regions; and the connection of ecology and multi-linear cultural evolution. Steward coined cultural ecology as a term in 1955, to express that (1) cultures in similar environments may have similar adaptations, (2) all adaptations are short-lived and constantly adjust to local conditions, and (3) changes can either elaborate on earlier cultures or result in entirely new ones. Modern Cultural Ecology Modern forms of cultural ecology pull in elements of tested and accepted theories (and some rejected) in the decades between the 1950s and today, including: historical ecology (which discusses the impact of individual interactions of small-scale societies);political ecology (which includes the effects of power relations and conflicts on the household to global scale);rational choice theory (which says that people make decisions about how to achieve their goals);post-modernism (all theories are equally valid and the truth is not readily discernible to subjective western scholars); andcultural materialism (humans respond to practical problems by developing adaptive technologies). All of those things have found their way into modern cultural ecology. In the end, cultural ecology is a way to look at things; a way to form hypotheses about understanding the broad range of human behaviors; a research strategy; and even a way to make sense of our lives. Think about this: much of the political debate about climate change of the early 2000s centered around whether or not it was human-created. That is an observation of how people still attempt to put humans outside our environment, something cultural ecology teaches us cannot be done. Sources Berry, J. W. A Cultural Ecology of Social Behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Ed. Berkowitz, Leonard. Vol. 12: Academic Press, 1979. 177–206. Print.Frake, Charles O. Cultural Ecology American Anthropologist 64.1 (1962): 53–59. Print.and Ethnography.Head, Lesley. Cultural Ecology: Adaptation—Retrofitting a Concept? Progress in Human Geography 34.2 (2010): 234-42. Print.Cultural Ecology: The Problematic Human and Terms of Engagement. Progress in Human Geography 31.6 (2007): 837–46. Print.Head, Lesley, and Jennifer Atchison. Cultural Ecology: Emerging Human-Plant Geographies. Progress in Human Geography  (2008). Print.Sutton, Mark Q, and E.N. Anderson. Introduction to Cultural Ecology. Second Edition ed. Lanham, Maryland: Altamira Press, 2013. Print.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Scholasticism - 776 Words

Scholasticism is the theological and philosophical movement that tried to use the classical Greco-Roman philosophy to understand the religious revelation of Christianity. It was the dominant theological and philosophical thought of medieval times, after the patristic thinking of late antiquity. It was based on the coordination between faith and reason, with the established assumption that reason was subordinate to faith. It dominated in the cathedral schools and general studies leading to medieval European universities. However, its origins are heterogeneous in nature as it adapted not only Greco-Latin philosophical thinking, but also Arab and Jewish[1]. Scholasticism can also be defined as a method of intellectual work where all†¦show more content†¦In this period its highest representatives are John Duns Scotus, called the â€Å"Subtle Doctor†[6], and William of Ockham. Scotus arrives at the idea that God and the Infinite, are notions reached via metaphysics; it was understood by the Franciscans in the strict Aristotelian sense as the science of being as being. Eventually, this led to the establishment of the autonomy of philosophy and theology. He made it clear that each of these disciplines has its own method and object; although Scotus assumed that theology presupposes a metaphysical course. It was William of Ockham however, which further lead this development on the metaphysical. His famous principle of economy, called Ockhams Razor[7], postulated that it was necessary to remove anything that was not obvious and given in sensible intuition: Dont multiply entities beyond necessity.†[8] In the act of knowing we prioritize empirical experience or intuitive knowledge which is an immediate knowledge of reality, because if everything that exists is singular and concrete, then they are not abstract entities separate from things or inherent to them. Universals are only names and exist only in the soul. Ockham’s approach, also known as â€Å"nominalism†[9], opposes the Aristotelian-scholastic tradition, which was fundamentally realistic. Universal concepts, for Ockham, are nothing more than mental processes by whichShow MoreRelatedThe Main Controversies of Medieval Thought in the 12th and 13th Centuries1050 Words   |  5 Pagesphilosophical debate revolved around these and to a lesser extent the opposition of realists and nominalists on the question of universals. The type of philosophy that was being taught in the Christian schools of the time has been given the name of scholasticism. Scholastics shared a common respect for the ideas of Aristotle, Plato, Boethius, Pseudo-Dionysius, and Avicenna. These were referred to by scholastics as the authorities. The views of the time were mainly Augustinian and Platonic although certainRead MoreEssay on Garber on Descartes860 Words   |  4 PagesRetention In Daniel Garber’s article, â€Å"Descartes against his teachers: The Refutation of Hylomorphism†, the metaphysics of the early scholastics is presented to show the similarities and differences between what Descartes was taught through scholasticism and what he came to refute. Through analysis of the article I will present what Descartes considered to be the central ideas of scholastic metaphysics, as well as show what he chose reject from that doctrine, why he chose to reject it, and whatRead MoreA 12th Century Renaissance Essay1883 Words   |  8 Pagescentury. During this time, scholasticism rose to the forefront of philosophy as an effective and finely honed argumentative method (Swanson 103). Scholasticism was a method of taking a source document and other documents pertaining to that one, finding contradictions with them, and then finding ways to resolve the contradictions. This was often useful at solving theological debates, but would come to be applied to c lassical philosophy and other subjects as well. Scholasticism being developed at thisRead MoreAbelard and Aquinas Essay713 Words   |  3 Pagestheory an alternate approach. He taught in Paris and Italy during the years 1225 to 1274. Both of these new age thinkers changed the way Catholic followers viewed the natural world. Peter Abelard was one of the new thinkers that applied scholasticism to his theological aspects. According to the excerpt Scholastic thinkers assumed that some teachings of Christianity, which thy accepted as true by faith, could also be demonstrated to be true by reason (238). Peter Abelards famous literaryRead MoreThree Things Are Necessary For The Salvation Of Man1380 Words   |  6 Pagesknown otherwise as, the doctor of the church (Angelicius Doctor), is considered to be one of the most important and influential medieval philosopher and theologians of all time. It has been said that Thomas Aquinas was immensely influenced by scholasticism and Aristotle. When it comes to Saint Thomas’s early life, he was born somewhere along the lines of 1225 or 1227; some proclaim him to being born on January 28th, 1225. Saint Thomas was one of eight children; and he was most likely born in hisRead MoreEssay on Faith and Reason1797 Words   |  8 PagesBefore being able to truly u nderstand what each philosopher’s stance ultimately is, this writer feels that it is important to distinguish the difference between each school of thought; the schools of thought in particular would be mysticism and scholasticism. According to the class discussion, materials and presentation, the term mysticism refers to a very personal and individual religious experience. In this school of thought, private faith and philosophy is accompanied with an emotional experienceRead MoreThe Italian Kingdom Of Sicily1363 Words   |  6 Pageswritings of great religious thinkers that influence the world today. The late Medieval period witnessed the rise of the religious movement which was lead by Thomas Aquinas who invented the Thomistic way of thought which was based around Medieval scholasticism. He revolutionized the catholic church beginning in 1245 when he moved to Paris and studied under Albertus the Great. I am a monk who studies in a monastery similar to one that Thomas Aquinas studied in his earlier years. I, like Aquinas, wasRead MoreThe Life Of Thomas Aquinas2700 Words   |  11 Pagesphilosophical works, to theological treatises, to commentaries on works of Aristotle and on Scripture (Magee). The two biggest accomplishments of Thomas were his studies on faith and reason and his monumental Summa Theologiae- a masterpiece of medieval scholasticism which is seen as Thomas’s most influential work and biggest contribution (IEP). The Summa Theologiae, also known as the Summa Theologica or Summa, is a very in depth and tricky work, but it is one of the classics of the history of philosophy andRead MoreShift from Medieval Scholasticism to Humanism800 Words   |  3 Pages The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries saw a shift away from the traditional methods of medieval scholasticism which focused primarily on preparing men to be doctors, lawyers and priests and instead saw the beginnings of a movement which would become known as Rennaissance Humanism. This new movement was a rejection of the traditional methods, aiming instead to create a citizenry which could read and write with eloquence, and allowing them to participate in civic life - in this we see the originsRead MoreThe Developmental Impact of Scholasticism Essay examples1391 Words   |  6 PagesScholasticism, which experienced its height around 1250, was the conjunction of faith and reason directed toward understanding the contradictions in the bible and Church teachings. The goal was to strengthen the Church’s teachings by validating them against argument and critical analysis (at least more critically than previously had been allowed with the sole goal of producing results positive to ward the Church.) There were warnings made by Anselm of Canterbury that reason and religious studies don’t

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Organisation Compete Within Its Business Area

Question: Show how will your chosen organisation compete within its business area. Answer: Introduction The main aim of any business is to earn profits by selling its products. This is only possible when the products satisfy the needs of the buyers. It is not sufficient for the company to know the needs of its target customers. The enterprise should also have the capability to acquire and manage efficiently the resources needed to produce such products. This is why the organization needs to have a proper operations strategy which enables it to produce quality products at reasonable costs to the company so that it can make a profit. Ford Motors is one such company which has become a leader in the automobile industry largely due to the efficient management of its operations. Ford Motors strategy to compete within its business area Ford Motors is one of the leading automobile manufacturers of the world selling its products in United States of America, Europe and Asia (Ford Motor Company, 2016). The company faces tough challenge from its competitors like General Motors, Toyota, etc. Almost fifty percent of the companys revenues come from United States Of America. The Company would therefore continue to focus on meeting the needs of its customers in this country by providing more innovative and wide variety of products. The company would manage its operations efficiently to meet the demand of its customers in time. Further the company would try to cut costs to increase its profitability by employing technology in managing its operations. Quality control would be a top priority for the company. Operations strategy formulation in Ford Motors Operations management is concerned with managing the change of an organizations inputs into finished goods using different processes and systems within the firm. Operations strategy is about determining the plan of action that the company would adopt to make products that are desired by its customers in an optimum way with minimum costs to the company and at the same time not compromising on the quality of the products (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). The objective of the firm is to maintain continuity in production to meet the quantity demanded by the customers. The first stage in the operations strategy process is the operations strategy formulation. There are different areas in the operations strategy formulation like enterprise resource planning, identifying process activities, inventory management, quality controls, supply chain management, project management, plant capacity management, etc. A business organization while formulating its operations strategy has to take into consideration what kind of products it wants to make and for what kind of customers. Ford Motor Company makes cars, trucks and small utility vehicles for its customers in United States of America, Europe and Asia. In order to meet the demand of its customers all over the world the company has established factories in different countries. The company has set up modern, technologically advanced plants where quality automobiles which are more fuel efficient, safe and which make lesser carbon emissions are made (Ford Motor Company, 2016). Although the company had to put lot of money in the construction of these plants, these assets have helped the company make p roducts which have significant market shares across the world. Ford Motor Company has been following the lean production system to optimize the flow of production and materials to get the firms products to their customers with speed. This system has also led to energy savings and lesser use of resources in the production process. The company follows the assembly line production method which has led to increased production capacity. The company sources components from suppliers all over the world and has also resorted to backward integration by making automobile parts at its own facilities (Monizka et. al, 2016) .This is the right policy as there are many parts in an automobile and it is convenient and economical to source them from suppliers rather than produce all of them. This way the company can concentrate more on other areas of production. Ford Motors has been following standard procedures for maintaining quality of its products. The company performs random batch tests of its automobiles. The company has been constantly engaged in research and development to produce automobiles with more features and improved performance. Operations strategy implementation in Ford Motors The operations strategy adopted by Ford Motors aims at improving the cost structure, raise the quality of the companys products and hasten the process of the development of innovative and more attractive products for its customers (Kourdi, 2015). One of the steps that Ford Motors has taken to reduce its costs is to reduce the number of its production platforms. The company adopted what is called the One Ford Plan. Under this plan the company has restructured its global operations. There was a time when the regional production centres of the company operated as individual business units. This was changed and uniform procedures and processes have been adopted at all global plants of the company. This policy is more efficient and has led to cost savings. The company has taken initiatives to develop a skilled and global workforce which is capable of working in different parts of the world (Mathis, Jackson and Valentine, 2016). The company has been providing different facilities to its employees like health care programs so that employees are fit enough leading to increased productivity. The company has a diverse workforce which is provided a safe environment where they can work with dignity. The employees of the company are one of the most important resources of the company. Ford Motors has over the years worked to train and develop suppliers with whom the company has developed healthy relationships. The company has tried to secure supplier commitment to control costs, improve quality and meet sustainability standards (Krajewski, Ritzman and Malhotra, 2013). The company has taken steps for the modernization of its production facilities over the years. There have been engineering feasibility studies and evaluations done by the company to constantly improve the production processes. The company has developed new engine transmission technologies, size and weight reductions, advanced powertrain optios, etc to meet the changing needs of the customers. Ford Motors has increased its product planning and design capabilities by setting up eight engineering research and development centres that work cooperating with one another. Operation strategy monitoring in Ford Motors It is very important to monitor the progress of the implementation of the operations strategy in a company (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). It is not enough to make plans if the things are not happening on the ground as desired. An organization has to put in place systems that can be used to monitor whether the predetermined strategy is being followed and what are the effects of that on the working and output of the organization. In Ford Motors scanners are used to monitor the delivery of automobile parts to the company by its suppliers. Further the company has put in place a logistics management system. An order taking software is used by the company. Technology is used in the company to keep track of how the different operations are taking place (Campbell, Edgar and Stonehouse, 2011). Ford Motors highly automated operations are controlled to a great extent by information technology. The assembly lines are managed using computers. This also helps in keeping record of operations and one can identify the location of an error if things go wrong. Further the company has also helped its dealer network adopt the use of information technology in its operations. This has led to speed, convenience and efficiency in operations. Ford motors employs automated scheduling in production facilities. The company has introduced short term and intermediate scheduling of processes and resources at its plants. This has helped to avoid wastage and interruptions in the production process. The chances of human error have been reduced considerably. The company has taken adequate steps for internal data collection and storage (Campbell, Stonehouse and Edgar, 2011). There are monthly, weekly and daily reports made relating to production performance. In case the company takes on a new project, the responsibility for the project is given to a team but the individuals in the team are also made accountable for completion of certain tasks and their performance is recorded and reported. Ford Motors follows the policy of carrying out its operations in a sustainable way (Ford Motor Company, 2016). In Ford Motors data is collected relating to the commodities being purchased by the company, the suppliers location, its training and audit history. Further representatives from Ford Motors are required to report any human right violation from the suppliers. Operations strategy control in Ford Motors The kind of organizational structure that a company has also determines to a significant extent the kind of control the firm would have on its operations. Ford Motors has divided its business all over the world into three geographical divisions only. This has helped the company in integrating its business strategies with lesser difficulty. Further the company has different functional groups within its organization like global manufacturing and labour affairs, quality and new model launch, finance, legal, etc. The organizational structure at Ford Motors suits traditional business management approaches that involve top to bottom control. Ford Motors has adopted Six Sigma a data driven approach which involves improving business processes by collecting data and analyzing it through the use of statistical tools. This approach aims at eliminating any defects in goods manufactured by the company. The use of this method has led to better control at Ford Motors. The company has adopted total quality management. This methodology is concerned with improving business processes leading to elimination of waste and lack of quality at different levels. This has helped in better quality control at the organization. Ford Motors organizes Global Pulse And Engagement Surveys to measure employee satisfaction. Accordingly the company takes steps for providing better facilities to its employees (Werner, Schuler and Jackson, 2012). Analysis of different business strategies that might be employed by Ford Motors Ford Motors has been making significant efforts over the years to develop its research and development facilities. The company has built the infrastructure and also a team of researchers, engineers and designers in its facilities. Not many companies can match this capability of Ford Motors. The company should continue to build innovative products for its markets all over the world. The company should follow this policy of differentiation to gain competitive advantage (Campbell, Edgar and Stonehouse, 2011). Secondly, Ford Motors should make deeper market penetration by selling more products to current customers. The company needs to make more efforts to attain efficiency in its operations through means like better processes and systems so that additional demand can be met in time and at greater convenience to the consumer. Thirdly, Ford Motors should make more efforts to develop more capable leaders in its organization. The executives in the organization should be given more training opportunities and exposure in different markets (Mathis, Jackson and Valentine, 2016). The company should pick the best people from different parts of the world and groom them to lead teams in different departments including production. The company should promote an environment where the employees are encouraged to learn new skills. Fourthly, the company should follow the strategy of adding to its list of suppliers so that the company does not remain dependent on the present number of suppliers. The aim of the company is to sell more products and this would mean increased demand for components and parts. The company should try to reduce its supplier risks by developing more suppliers by providing them training and other forms of support (Monizka, et al., 2016). Fifthly, Ford Motors should continue to find new methods for improving the quality of its products. The company should make more efforts to develop a more effective quality management program. Ensuring a good quality of its products should remain a top priority for the company. Operations management contributions to improving strategy at Ford Motors In any company production department plays a very important role because a major portion of the costs of the company are incurred in this department. Moreover the variety and quality of goods that are made by the production department also determine to a great extent the kind of revenues and profits the company is able to make. There was a time when the Ford Motors could capture the market for automobiles by producing cars at lower costs by employing the assembly line method of production and producing cars at mass scale. But as other companies also started using same production methods, lower costs were not enough and Ford Motors have been able to enjoy a significant market share because the production department of the company has been able to make innovative products and product differentiation has become a major weapon for the company to grow (Gong, 2013). Ford Motors has been using latest technologies like 3D printing to produce prototypes of new parts with speed and lower costs. The company has been making more use of digital technology in its cars in the construction of dashboards, entertainment systems in the cars (Ford Motor Company, 2016). The developments in the research and development facilities of the company have impacted the kind of product offerings the company has come up with. The ideas generated in the production department have given a direction to the whole company. Now the company has a vision for the future which it could not have imagined a few years ago (Ford Motor Company, 2016). The kinds of products and technologies that have been developed by the production department have shaped this vision. Ford Motors reduced the number of its production platforms to lower costs (Slack, Chambers and Johnston, 2010). But inspite of this reduction, the company has been able to produce many models of cars. This indicates the efficiency, and innovative practice in the production department. Further, the company has made improvements in its assembly line production facilties. New technology has been employed constantly. The company has been aiming for growth in the markets of its products. But this growth has not come at the price of unlimited costs. The efficiency of the production department has helped to keep the costs down even as more ambitious new product offerings were developed and made in the company. The production department at Ford Motors has taken the lead in implementing innovative practices like establishing warehouses where the suppliers could deliver automobile parts, leading to reduction in costs. Further, by using special kinds of steel and aluminium in production, the strength of vehicles has gone up and weight has gone down. The production department has taken the lead in promoting a culture of innovation in the company and also inspiring the other departments. Conclusion and recommendations Ford Motors has been able to do well in the highly competitive automobile industry in different parts of the world. The credit for this success also goes significantly to the fact that the company has been able to offer automobiles to its customers, which are good on different fronts like quality, variety, affordability, comfort, storage capacity, etc. The company has been able to make such products as a result of its continuous efforts to improve processes and equipment in its departments (Gong, 2013). The company has been able to put into effect a well thought out operations strategy to meet enterprise objectives. Ford Motors also needs to look at the future if it wants to achieve continuous growth. The company has to beat the competition in United States Of America and increase its market share there. But the company also needs to take steps to expand its markets in the emerging economies of the world which have huge potential. The environment and needs of customers in these count ries are different and the company has to meet the challenge to develop and sell its products in these countries to sustain its global growth. References Campbell, D. , Edgar, D. and Stonehouse, G. (2011). Business Strategy: An Introduction. United Kingdom: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Ford Motor Company (2016). Annual Report. Available at: (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Ford Motor Company (2016). Innovation. Available at: (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Ford Motor Company (2016). Sustainability Report. Available at: (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Ford Motor Company (2016). Vehicles. Available at: (Accessed: 13 July 2016). Gong, Y. (2013). Global Operations Strategy: Fundamentals And Practice. United Kingdom: Springer. Kourdi, J. (2015). Business Strategy: A Guide To Effective Decision Making. 3rd(edn.) United Kingdom: Profile Books Limited. Krajewski, L. , Ritzman, L. and Malhotra, M. (2013). Operations Management: Processes And Supply Chains. United Kingdom: Pearson. Mathis, R. , Jackson, J. and Valentine, S. (2016). Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives. 7th (edn.) United Kingdom: Cengage Learning. Monizka, R., Handfield, R. , Giunipero, L. and Patterson, J. (2016). Purchasing And Supply Chain Management. 6th (edn.) United Kingdom: Cengage Learning. Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, R. (2010). Operations Management. 6th (edn.) United Kingdom: Pearson. Warner, S., Schuler, R. and Jackson, S. (2012). Human Resource Management. United Kingdom: South Western Cengage Learning.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Photosynthesis Lab Report Essay Example

Photosynthesis Lab Report Paper The following terms were used in this experiment Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis. Http://biology. CLC. Us. Due/courses/Bobbie/photons. HTML 2- Chloroplasts: are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts capture light energy, store t in the energy storage molecules TAP and NADIA and use it in the process called photosynthesis to make organic molecules and free oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Chloroplast 4- stoma, also called Stoma, plural Stomata, or Stoma, any of the microscopic openings or pores in the epidermis of leaves and young stems. Stomata are generally more numerous on the underside of leaves. They provide for the exchange of gases between the outside air and the branched system of interconnecting air canals within the leaf. A stomata opens and closes in espouse to the internal pressure of two sausage-shaped guard cells that surround it. The inner wall of a guard cell is thicker than the outer wall. Http://www. Britannica. Com/Upchucked/topic/567123/stomata Hypothesis: Purpose of this experiment is to determine if the light a spinach plant is exposed to affects the rate of its photosynthesis. Hypothesis 1: I believe that the spinach leaves that are only exposed to room light will have a slower rate of photosynthesis, and the spinach plants that are exposed to incandescent light will photosynthesis faster. We will write a custom essay sample on Photosynthesis Lab Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Photosynthesis Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Photosynthesis Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Hypothesis 2: I believe that an increase in the bicarbonate concentrations increases the rate at which CO is incorporated into carbohydrate in the light-independent reaction, and so the rate of photosynthesis generally increases until its limited by another factor Materials and methods: Materials: Bicarbonate, Vacuum (Water aspirator), Large beaker, Spinach Leaves, Drinking straw (Hole puncher), Timer, Lamp (light source), and 3 Petri dishes. There were 3 types of variables involved in the experiment Independent Variable: The light a plant is exposed to during photosynthesis (room light or light from a 120 watt lamp). Dependent Variable: The rate of photosynthesis of a plant exposed solely to either room or lamp light. Controlled Variables: Amount of light the plant receives, the intensity of the light, type of light bulb, the amount of time the plant is exposed to one type of light, the type of plant, health of plant, age of plant, amount of oxygen the plants are exposed to, amount of carbon dioxide the plants are exposed to, amount of water the plant receives, amount of water the leaf disks are soaked in, amount of bicarbonate in the water solution, the intensity of the vacuum created. Method: First, we stack many spinach leaves, and with the straw, we punch 10-15 uniform leaf disks for each Petri dish. After that we prepare 100 ml of bicarbonate solution in the water aspirator. Once the container is ready, we put the leaf disks into it to infiltrate them with the sodium bicarbonate solution. We seal the container and immediately connect it to the faucet, we turn the water on (both hot and cold) and let it run for about a minute. After that we turn the water off and unseal the container. With doing so, the air spaces in the leaf disks are infiltrated causing the disks to sink. At this point, we are ready to transfer the leaf disks into the Petri dishes for the experiment. We fell the three Petri dishes with h inch of the 0. 05% solution and transform 10-15 leaf disks into each. Then we place the first Petri dish which is covered under the light source and we put the beaker on top of it, the beaker will be filled with IL of cold water to act as a heat filter and then we start the timer. At the end of each 10 min, we observe and record the number of floating disks. Continue observing the leaf disks until the end of the mini. As of the second Petri dish, we cover the sis and keep it at the room light and watch it and keep recording the floating disk every 10 min. Finally the third Petri dish, will not be exposed to light at all, so it will be covered with aluminum foil and will be kept for the whole 40 min. In order to see how many disk floated in that period. Results: For this experiment, we measured how long it takes for spinach plants to photosynthesis under a room light and also a Iamb (light source). We timed how many leaf disks rose in 10/20/30/40 minute duration under a room light, a lamp (light source) and in the dark as well. The results came out positive purporting the hypothesis as shown on the results section of the attached Raw Data Sheet. We then calculated the average amount of time it took the spinach leaves to photosynthesis under each amount of light, graphed these averages in order to show our results. The Y axis on our graph shows the number of floating leaf disks and the X axis represents the average time it took for the leaf disks to rise. (Duration was forty minutes. ) According to our data, the leaf disks exposed to lamp light rose faster, as shown in the graph below. Discussion: I think that the concentration of Bicarbonate could have affected our results. While the oxygen is removed from all leaf disks we picked, there was some of them might have been more thoroughly infiltrated than others. For example, when we picked the disks, some of them sank immediately while others took a while. Also possible that when we distributed the leaf disks, we may have put some of the leaf disks that were not infiltrated under the room light. Because they already had some oxygen in them, they could have been more likely to float quicker. Additionally, there are other factors could have influenced our results detrimentally, as well. In addition, although this method is an easy way to measure the rate of photosynthesis, it is not the most accurate. Cellular respiration, a process that uses the oxygen produced during light reactions, could have occurred. If the oxygen produced by the leaf disks was used during cellular respiration, the leaf disks might not have risen even though they did photosynthesis. I think to improve this experiment next time; we have to keep all these factors in mind, also make sure to pick the leaves off the spinach plant ourselves, or at least ascertain the health and age of both the leaves we use ND the plant they are from, not to mentioned doing the vacuuming process as well. In general, for future experiments, I would allot more time and have more materials and do the whole process. Conducting such an experiment inspired me to conduct similar experiments, testing the rate of photosynthesis under even more conditions. I would want to test and see whether photosynthesis occurs faster when plants are exposed to the sun light (outdoor). Overall, this experiment was a good learning experience. It helped me learn how to put together an experiment and pay attention to even the minute details that can significantly alter ones results.