Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Steve Jobs Personality

Type Today marks part four of our 16 part series exploring the sixteen Myers-Briggs Type [email  protected] test personality types and related notable Celebrity figures throughout time. Previously we examined Celebrity John D Rockefeller and the [email  protected] test EST] personality type. This week we examine the SITS (Introversion-sensing-Thinking- Perceiving) and the late great mastermind behind the â€Å"Apple†, Steve Jobs. Most people remember Steve Jobs as the co-founder and CEO of Apple Inc and Paxar Inc.Steve Jobs was also an individual that mastered his AMBIT type, the SITS, allowing him o excel in a unique position in his industry that lead to technical advancements that we often take for granted in this day of age. Like many Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Introverts who prefer thinking and sensing, Steve Jobs used his preferences primarily internally to analyze the data he gathered in an organized fashion much like the computers he helped develop. He was able to detach and objectively criticize the projects he worked on.This sometimes insensitive approach to problems was a double edged sword that lead to Jobs being fired from Apple in 1985 after losing a rower struggle with Apple's board of directors. Fortunately, Steve Jobs didn't give up, and utilized his Perceiving preference to remain flexible and spontaneous in his approach to work. He acquired the computer graphics division from Localisms and turned it into the critically and financially acclaimed Paxar Studios. He also started up NeXT Inc. That was acquired by Apple Inc. In 1996, and over the next four years Steve Jobs ascended to CEO of Apple bringing him full circle with the company.Steve Jobs also showcased how SITS types focus on efficiently working on projects and was a rim believer in doing only what was needed with the least amount of fuss. Efficiency and innovation were key focus points throughout his career. You can see this today in the products that Apple releases. From th e mimic, to the pod, to the phone, all three are innovations which are streamlined, clean, and efficient products that attract a full spectrum of customers. Apple produces a set amount of products that are mass produced for cost efficiency and quality control.This has allowed Apple to control the image of all the products they produce unlike open sourced platforms like he PC. This did not come without risk as many manufacturers looked down on Apple for their lack of flexibility in the ass's but it is that exact mentality of adaptable, action- orientated risk taking that is synonymous with SITS personality types. Not many people got to know the man behind the keynote speeches closely while he was alive. This is something that is common with Introverts. Most accounts were from people that worked for Steve Jobs. At one point Fortune named Steve Jobs â€Å"one of Silicon Valleys leading egomaniacs.He was also known as a demanding perfectionist, but that was a side effect of the extreme SITS preference that is often seen as confident, independent, and self-determined. Steve Jobs set the bar high and worked until the very end to meet those standards. In the end Jobs did things his own way. Through his successes and failures he changed the technical landscape forever and showed what a motivated SITS can achieve. – See more at: http://carcinogenicity's. Com/ assessments/ambit/965-celebrity-personality-type-Steve-Jobs/#stash. Qwerty. Duff Ambit By Shabby

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

The Illuminati speech Essay

The Illuminati. 237 years of captivating conspiracies. Many of you may know the popular image of the all seeing eye sitting atop a pyramid, however what does it all mean? The illuminati was discovered in 1776, by Adam Weishaupt, who was a professor of Canon Law and Practical philosophy. It is thought that it was around before the Garden of Eden was invented, however that is just a conspiracy. Its definition is: people claiming to possess special enlightenment or knowledge of something. The unknown is what has me so interested in the illuminati, and opens my eyes to a bigger picture of our world today. Some of the views of the illuminati include: There is a supreme deity; however the supreme deity is not an absolute being that is defined within the halls of illuminati, instead it is a being that allows adherence to hold to personal views of who or what their God might be. The supreme deity is called the creator and architect of the universe that is neither good nor evil. The practise of forgiveness A balance that exists within each person is ‘Order Chaos’. This balance is dependent upon the personal preferences and experiences as they relate to the individuals view of their deity. It all started by the Bavarian Illuminati, a secret society opposed to superstition, abuse of state power and religious influence that was formed in 1776 and disbanded in 1785. ‘The order of the day’ they wrote in their general statues, ‘is to put an end to the machinations of the purveyors of injustice, to control them without dominating them’. The illuminati along with the freemasonry and other societies were outlawed by the Bavarian ruler, Charles Theodore, with the encouragement of the roman catholic church, in 1784, 1785, 1787 and 1790. In the several years following the group was vilifies and were responsible for the French revolution. They are often alleged to unite to control world affairs, by masterminding events and planting agents in government and corporations, in order to gain political power and influence and to establish a New World Order. Central to some of the most widely known and elaborate conspiracy theories, the Illuminati have been depicted as lurking in the shadows and pulling the strings and levers of power in dozens of novels, movies, television shows, comics, video games and music videos.

The End of the Affair

ABC DFG English 1B March 12 2013 A Man’s Love Graham Green wrote the beautiful love story The End of the Affair. The content is about the four characters the novelist, Maurice Bendrix; the couple Henry and Sarah Miles; and the priest Richard Smythe. Maurice meets Sarah and they fall in love deeply. The more Maurice loves Sarah, the more he realizes that there is an indestructible obstacle, which prevents him possessing all Sarah’s love. Maurice’s love affair ends, he lives in hatred and torment because Sarah staying away from him. Maurice has no more doubt when he finds out Sarah’s thought after reading her journal.The time he comes to her again, it is too late; Sarah can no longer enjoy true love with Maurice; she dies. After Sarah’s death, Maurice lives in regret and sorrow. Maurice considers himself a master of love in The End of the Affair because he shows desire to possess all of Sarah’s love and throughout the story he acts like a love starving person that seeks for it. Maurice’s personality has a big impact on his very own decision that drives his life in chaos. He wants to have the superiority in relationship, especially with women. Maurice stays â€Å" I had no idea whatever or falling in love with her.For one thing, she was beautiful, and beautiful women, especially if they are intelligent also, stir some seep feeling of inferiority in my [†¦] but I have always found it hard to feel sexual desire without some sense of superiority, mental or physical. † (17) . Maurice really shows us he is the man of desire, the desire to possess. When we take a look at a group of gorillas, there is one leader. The white-back-mature gorilla is always the leader of the group which he has the right to mate to all the others females. Maurice feels superior because he knows that if he could own Sarah, that where he feel the power of the top male.Maurice feels jealous with Henry who officially gets married to Sara h. When a man has something, he wants to completely possess it. And in this case, Sarah, a woman who delivers love, Maurice is thirsty for it. He is supposed to suck all the love from Sarah like a vampire sucks all the blood from its victim. The more he loves Sarah, the more love he requires her to deliver. Henry is the main wall that stops Sarah from delivering him more love that what causes him to think â€Å" his desire was simply for companionship†. Maurice is a jealous man. jealousy, or so I have always believed, exist only with desire† (31). He totally he his right to be jealous, which is natural. First Sarah was married to Henry. He is upset because he does not own Sarah. Second, when the Sarah and Maurice make love occasionally but Sarah comes back to Henry afterward. This situation is irony. Finally, Maurice could hate Henry because â€Å"while he still owned her presence at the table, the sound of her feet on the stairs [†¦] the kiss on the cheek. † (32) , he has nothing. Maurice could be a good novelist but he is just a human, and humans have flaws.Even though love is one of the most important things in Maurice’s life but he cannot take what love has given him. Maurice starts everything in pride. He says â€Å" I measured love by the extend of my jealousy, and by that standard of course she could not love me at all† (43). He thinks his jealousy is the tool, which he can use to measure someone’s dignity. He was wrong, and he regrets afterward. Maurice admitted â€Å" I’ve been a bad lover, Sarah† (105). However, at some point it is not wrong to use jealousy to measure ourselves. As we have known Maurice is struggle at love.First, he loves Sarah but he cannot have her. Second, he sees that Sarah is stuck with Henry, by their marriage. That could be one of the wall that inhibit him to love Sarah without doubt and jealousy. Like what mentioned in Sarah’s journal â€Å" he is jealous of the past and the present and the future†. The situation looks like Maurice had a bad headache that no medicine could fix. Of course he is one of the two partners in his love affair, he should have the instinct. Maurice feels that it would be going to be somewhat, he said â€Å" I became aware that our love was doomed† (25).Moreover, the aspiration to possess seems obsessed him, Maurice said moodily â€Å" I would fan myself into anger and remorse† and he can’t help changing the situation, he feels helpless â€Å" I was pushing, pushing the only thing that I loved out of my life†. Unsuccessful possession transforms into hatred and anger. Maurice says â€Å" but if love had to die, I wanted it to die quickly. It was as though our love were a small creature caught in a trap and bleeding to death: I had to shut my eye and wring its neck† (25) bitterly.We can assume that whatever Maurice has taken look like the heat, which uses to boil water. All the heat in the vase just wants to blast out. Love turns in to hate. Maurice said â€Å" more than anything in the world I wanted to hurt Sarah† (45). And he even acts like an upset kid behaving with his friend; he just wants to stop the game. Maurice mockingly told Sarah â€Å" we had good time together, we’re adults, we know it had to end some time. Now, you see, we can meet like friends and talk about Henry† (23). That should have hurt Sarah a lot.He simply revenges the person has given him the pain and the headache. When taking about Maurice, we cannot omit his obsession of love. Sarah’s love seems never enough for him. The depression grows awfully, he thought â€Å" and I began quite seriously to think of suicide†. In short, Maurice puts his entire mind toward Sarah. He loves her for two reasons, for her beauty and for the superiority in their relationship. However, assuming that his inner world seems struggle. His deeds keep moving around in a circle of loving and receiving love painfully.Maurice seems a hateful person because his head is full of pain and hatred but deep inside that nasty man there is a very usual man, a lovable man. Being left behind by Sarah, Maurice keeps thinking about what she could have done with another man. He becomes a true lover, or he admits himself so. Since the desire to possess Sarah, who carries a loved soul and beautiful body, so significant Maurice imaged Sarah with other man â€Å" Sarah making love, Sarah with X, doing the same things that we had done together† (59). Maurice is a doubtful man, he trusts no one and that sorrows him.The best moment is his life is when he realizes he was enlightened by Sarah’s unconditional love. He thought when he read Sarah’s journal â€Å" there’s enough left for our two lives, and I thought of that day when she had packed her suitcase and I sat here working, not knowing that happiness was to close, I was glad that I hadnà ¢â‚¬â„¢t known and I was glad that I know. I could act now† (101). That moment is a big change in his mind, it goes from totally doubt to doing whatever to love her unconditionally. It is also the moment that he perceives his biggest mistake ever, doubting ignoring Sarah’s love.He can be forgiven. When people realize their mistakes, they would either fix them or confess them. Bendrix said â€Å" the slowly growing pain in my upper arm where her weight lay was he greatest pleasure I had ever known† (105). He feels relieved because there is no more jealousy, no more doubt or hatred. At this point he forgives himself. He opens his spirit in order to touch what Sarah would offer him. Maurice shows us what his world of love looks like; it is filled with courage to move forward for the loved one and with passion to never stop loving. His personalities exist in a very special way.If there were an inner world Maurice would be without hesitation showing off his feeling su ch as interests or boredom to someone and if there were an outer world he would show off desire to love, to hate. Since there is a part in Maurice exists which always asks for more love, he is sort of lost. He is lost because he doesn’t now much love he needs. I have learned what is true love from Maurice. I can see love sometimes needs a boundary, which divides many parts. Where will be my limit to ask for love or where will be the limit the loved ones could offer me. Work Cited Greene, Graham. The End of the Affair. U. S: Penguin books, 2004. Print.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Respond to the discussion about ethics and God (for online class) Essay

Respond to the discussion about ethics and God (for online class) - Essay Example Response to 2nd comment: Aquinas, like me, believed in God. He explained how humans attain satisfaction and happiness through their belief in God. Whereas I discussed how people would differ in their compliance with ethics through a belief in God. What is common between our views is that a belief or disbelief in God makes a difference. Response to 3rd comment: You compliment your own agreement with my stance on the subject when you say that in some people, â€Å"there is no sense for ethics whatsoever†. It is not that they don’t have any sense. Instead, they don’t make use of it. They may not display ethics either because they don’t believe in God, or else, they don’t fear God even if they believe. Here I don’t mean to say that all atheists lack ethics. There are many who are not believers yet have an intrinsic desire to remain decent in their attitude, and hence display ethics. Therefore, ethics is there in every human being, though its disp lay is governed not only by the individual’s belief in God. There are several other factors involved in it like personality traits, genetic traits etc. It is being hard for you to conceive how psychology is related to God because you tend to see God through the eyes of religion. Also, I don’t consider science in contrast with the concept of God, because many things said in the Holy Books are being proved by science. Response to class-mates opinions: 1. You have agreed that ethics is ingrained in humanity, but you don’t consider it to be dependent upon a belief in God. I would like to ask you if a criminal is smart enough to escape worldly punishment, would he abstain from doing wrong then? Irrespective of the fact that ethics is there in him as he is a human, would he have any respect for ethics? Certainly not! Here you may argue that I am speaking of an ideal case in which the criminal is sure that he will not be taken to task for his wrong deed, whereas in act ual, every body knows there is a strict regulatory system in every country. So you should realize that ethics is not just about abstaining from crimes that are largely visible. Even if someone lies, he disregards ethics. So would anyone care not to lie if it benefits without a fear of God? Certainly not! I agree with you when you say that ethics is in-built feature of humanity. I also agree with you when you say that ethics would exist if God does not in people’s perception. However, you need to realize that humans may have little regard for ethics, without a belief in God. 2. You have also said that a society’s legal system is enough to cause human’s to display ethics in their attitude. And also, you have considered such minor requirements of ethics as speaking truth under the umbrella term of â€Å"basic moral obligation†. I agree to you when you say that people would tend not to disregard ethics in public but would disregard it for basics. I also agree to you when you consider ethics as inside every human irrespective of his/her belief in God. Technically, you have constructed sentences in a way that make me say, â€Å"I totally agree with you!† You already seem to agree that people would disregard ethics if they think God does not exist. Because abstaining from bigger crimes and doing smaller ones does not mean that an individual respects ethics. It is just that he/she fears punishment. 3. I agree to you that religions provide their followers with a sound understanding of ethics. However, such understanding may vary

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Unit operation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Unit operation - Essay Example The feed plate is the 10th tray from the top of the column. The height of the column is 21m above ground level. The minimum number of trays are required at total reflux is 18. The column diameter in the enriching section is 1.005 m and the column diameter in the stripping section is 1.39 m. The below feed is bigger than above with an average column diameter. The biggest diameter was selected of 1.39 m as an estimation of the overall column diameter. The type of tray used in this distillation design was Sieve trays. It singly passes liquid flow across. The tray is 5 mm thick and spaced 0.45 m apart. Every tray contains 5888 active holes with diameter 5 mm in each at a hole pitch of 13.5 mm. The pressure drop across each tray is approximately 1.22 kPa, resulting to a total pressure drop down the column of 36.6 kPa. This is insignificant and the total column is considered to be operating at the atmospheric pressure. The saturated feed enters at 103ËšC while temperatures at the top and bottom of the column are 100.86ËšC and 117.48ËšC, respectively. The total condenser used is a double pipe heat exchanger with a duty of 2417.85 kW while a horizontal thermosyphon partial re-boiler with a duty of 1495.32 kW was chosen. The method used in designing the distillation column is the McCabe-Thiel Method and design method outlined in Coulson and Richardson. An assumption of constant molar overflow (CMO) is made in this design.However; it was not an accurate assumption to make as it results in a significant error in the calculations. A summary of the key findings of the design is as illustrated in the flow diagram on page 2. 6.2. The reflux calculations are limited by the equilibrium data and on the assumption of CMO. The optimum reflux ratio is selected in correspondence to the lowest operating cost of the column. Hence if either of these assumptions are incorrect or the true optimum reflux ratio deviates

Saturday, July 27, 2019

International HRM Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

International HRM - Term Paper Example It is a great idea to offer HRM consulting services to private-sector employers located in England and France. It will diversify the operations of the organization and will open up new opportunities for growth and development. By all means the organization must go ahead with this initiative as companies all over the world are looking for HR consulting organizations to assist them with managing global workforce. Global cultural competencies will definitely grow and this is a great opportunity to stay ahead of the competition. At the same time there are various issues that need to be considered for this initiative to be successful. First and the foremost, it is an obvious fact that HRM has only been a part of the organization and not the core business. The core business of the organization has been IT consulting; hence, HR consulting is not the expertise of the company. It also has to be noted that IT consulting has limited clients in the U.S. and Canada. Therefore, venturing into an e ntirely new market with a new service is very risky and calls for caution. There are numerous factors that need to be considered and acted upon for the company to be prepared and competent in order to meet the needs of clients in England and France. The current HR team will not be sufficient to handle the workload and, hence, new recruitments are essential. The HR team will not be addressing issues with respect to internal employees but employees of clients which are international organizations. Hence, now qualified HR professionals need to possess numerous essential competencies, such as â€Å"knowledge of HR strategies, models, methods and techniques; problem-solving skills; people management skills; and, finally, the ability to adapt to international contexts† (Tyler, 2011). Another crucial requirement regarding HR personal is the development of global mind-set. When dealing with people from different cultural backgrounds it is essential to understand their culture. Hence, HR personal needs to be taught global mind-set skills, even though they will be working from offices and visiting the client sites. In order for our HR team to manage or consult on issues with respect to international workforces, there are three main aspects they need to be good at: â€Å"self-awareness, second languages and multicultural savvy† (Tyler, 2011). It is very important to ensure that the above factors are taken into consideration while hiring new HR personnel. HR professionals with an international HR degree would be handy for this project but it is not an absolute necessity. There is no need for a compulsory HR degree courses but it is essential for professionals to at least attend workshops that last from a day to a week. Such workshops, which focus on topics related to globalization, are vital as they help HR professional to better understand international cultures (Tyler, 2011). There are various other factors that need to be considered, such as cultural faux pas. What is considered as good manners in one culture might not be the same in another culture. Hence, cultural competency becomes vital when dealing intercultural organizations. Cultural competency is the ability of an individual to effectively interact and communicate with people from different cultural backgrounds (Tyler, 2011). Effective HR personnel are those who are not only aware of one’s background, views, as well as preferences and bias but also of the whole lot of other important nuances. Only then he/she will be able to effectively understand and manage the human resources in the 21st century organization. Second language acquisition is another important aspect of cultural competence. For example, while dealing with clients from France, it is important to be able to communicate in French. Talent management is a challenge with respect to international management as different practices are employed in different cultures and this leads to divergence of ideologies. V arious factors, such as

Friday, July 26, 2019

Read a case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Read a - Case Study Example The objective was to encourage as many people as possible to refer their friends and family such that they could have a significant number of free customers. They were hoping that since on average 20 percent of free customers turn premium, they could increase the potential customer base. The method was immensely successful in and in 2010; there was an increase 2.8 users who were referred by the 4 million paying customers. It is approximated that the Dropbox accounts each yielded a 12% referral rate, which was likely understated given the fact that many people target even non-acquaintances. In 2013, the company’s conversion from free to premise rose from 1.4 to 4%, which boosted the revenue to between $200 and $240 million dollars of annual income. The success rate was so high that other internet firms began to copy the freemium model as a way to get new clients without significant cost in their marketing budget. Another positive impact of the strategy was that it was copied by other firms outside the cloud storage business with the 100 top rating apps in Apple store using it in 2013. While there are no precise figures for how many of the firms using the technology were successful, there is no doubt that many of those that did have substantively grown their cu stomer base. In fact, the model was so successful that some firms like Spotify, an online radio channel had a conversion rate of 20%. There were nevertheless some disadvantage to this strategy; some of the companies that tried to model it ended up going bankrupt since the bulk of their clients did not convert to the premium service. In addition, given that Dropbox’s clients were mostly free, it means that much of their attention had to go to them while they may have been better off servicing the paying ones. Moving forward, it is hard to determine if the company can expect to make any more progress from the method since the firm is already a market giant and

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Business strategy in student banking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 9250 words

Business strategy in student banking - Essay Example Another important feature of the student market is the possibility for above-average profitability. Lewis (1982) suggested that banks understood that ‘it is important to attract students to open accounts when they begin college, in the expectation that they would stay with the after graduation, and be lucrative, in the long run, for the bank.’ The fundamental reason for this observation is that college student is the section of the population who has the likelihood of earning a larger income than any other section of the population. As stated by Duncan, Smeeding & Rodgers (1992), only individuals who are studying have a considerably greater probability of rising from the low income strata into the middle class. Specially, as contrasted with non-graduates of similar age group, graduates usually secure more highly paid jobs, achieve a more developing career and thus, grow a need for a greater variety of personal financial services as they go by their own life cycle. The sk ill to build up an existence in the student market through suitable attainment and maintenance strategies is thus expected to have an effect on banks’ future market share and revenue (Thwaites & Vere, 1995).International students signify as a significant market for financial institutions such as banks. The skill to value, comprehend and deal with the precise needs of this segment section of the population is now a vital market reality (Cicic, Brkic, & Agic, n.d). Bankers can no longer maintain their conventional belief that only business.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Online Application Ning - the Platform Allowing Users to Create and Cl Coursework

Online Application Ning - the Platform Allowing Users to Create and Close Their Own Social Network - Coursework Example This critical analysis functions to examine the role of social networking with a variety of diverse populations, arguing that the widespread social adoption of this technology has not simply been a tool to achieve greater efficiency, but is in actuality reshaping and formatting the nature of human culture and consciousness.A television program recently had a comedic skit where the internet went out in a home and the residents had to resort to a box-labeled ‘pre-internet’ – inside the box were a rubber duck, a barbell, and a fake plastic tree. While most of us recognize that there was a lot more going on in pre-internet times than a box full of trinkets, the absurdity of the skit draws one's attention to the fact that one of the great divides of culture, arguably on the scale of the Protestant Reformation, the Industrial Revolution, or even the Renaissance, is the contemporary occurrence of what has been deemed the Digital Age. Having died in 1980 Marshall McLuhan had only glimpsed its genesis when he proclaimed, â€Å"In this electronic age we see ourselves being translated more and more into the form of information, moving toward the technological extension of consciousness (McLuhan 1967).†With the explosion of Web 2.0 software and the use of social networking sites (SNS), it was certain that professional environments would begin to incorporate the technology. While previous conceptions of computer-mediated communication – video gaming, Facebook use, YouTube – have been characterized as detrimental, the technology is now being reconsidered for its functional value. Many varied corporations have implemented collaborative technology, including Google whose employees hold daily meetings with associates spread throughout the world. One of the most widespread uses of collaborative technology has occurred in education environments. Indeed, certain researchers even argue that this technology is expanding the very nature of the classroom room outside institutional walls.     

Managed Change at Toyota Australia Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Managed Change at Toyota Australia - Case Study Example What we assumed was a temporary circumstance has  turned into a permanent situation. This drop of 36% in just four years shows the scale of our  challenges.† (Toyota Motor Corporation Australia 2012) As Mr. Yasuda notes, business is down and the trend is not temporary, but has been in process for the past four years. Export volumes are down, and not only that, the competitiveness of Australian-made Toyota vehicles is also noted to be down. The Australian currency's strength has likewise negatively impacted the volumes, because of the higher prices owing to the improved currency valuation versus other currencies. This makes Toyota in Australia less competitive in terms of cost too, in comparison to other markets and other production locations in the world (Toyota Motor Corporation Australia 2012). As of the time of the announcement, Mr. Yasuda also noted that the changes that were being made in the Toyota operations in Australia were geared for the long term, and towards mak ing Toyota Australia competitive under the changed operating condition and market conditions in the world. Those market changes are long-term, and so must the changes. The workforce is to undergo adjustment to align it with the company's long-term plans, and that adjustment may mean re-training and reorganizing the workforce. That can also include renegotiating wages and working arrangements as well. Sourcing for parts is to be optimized for cost and efficiency. Efficiency gains are to be a primary goal. As well the overall cost structure of the manufacturing facilities and the entire operations is to be optimized (Toyota Motor Corporation Australia 2012; Beissman 2012; Beissman 2012 (b)). That said, it is to be noted that Toyota in... The company basically made use of fundamental change management tools centering on communication and in the explanation of the fundamental reasons for the change. There is, first of all, the use of systematic modes of managing the personnel side of the change, via planned layoffs that reflect the changed fundamentals of the company's financial viability. As well the company communicated and validated how the external market conditions necessitated such personnel change. The literature calls this making a formal case out of the planned changes. No doubt with the fact that Toyota Australia is not alone in facing difficulties in the domestic and international markets, and the fact that government itself had acknowledged the changed and difficult market conditions, made it easy for Toyota Australia to make the formal case for change. The formal case made by the CEO is one that is also a solid business case. There are good business reasons for the changes, in other words, and that was the message and the formal case that made it easier for Toyota Australia to sell the idea of the planned changes not only to employees but to the market in general.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Recovery of Financial Markets and Institutions and Challenges in the Essay

Recovery of Financial Markets and Institutions and Challenges in the Post-Crisis Era - Essay Example According to the World Investment Report 2010 presented by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the world economies have recovered from the global financial crisis (UNCTAD, 2010). The aim of this report is to study the recovery of financial markets and institutions and challenges which these institutions are facing in the post-crisis era. In this research essay, the impact of financial crisis on three major stock markets of the world including FTSE-100, NIKKEE and DOW has been studied. Moreover, the underlying factors contributing to the downturn of the stock markets have also been discussed. The report also highlights the recovery process and the performance of the stocks in the post-crisis era. In this report, the prospects of financial regulatory reforms and financial sector and economic growth have been discussed. Finally, the new trends on the financial landscape and changes in institutions have been discussed.... The index started declining around the mid of 2008 and in the first quarter of 2009 the index reached to its lowest level in the history. Figure II: DOW Index Historical Performance of Five Years The following chart shows the NIKKIE 225 Index performance from 2007 to 2011. The table shows that the stock points declined very sharply at the end of year 2008 when stock markets were facing a huge impact of financial crisis. The index started declining around the mid of 2008 and in the first quarter of 2009 the index reached to its lowest level in the history. Figure III: NIKKIE Index Historical Performance of Five Years Underlying Factors Contributed to the Decline of Stock Markets The global financial markets are strongly integrated markets thanks to the rapid process of globalisation. One of the major factors that lead to the current financial crisis is the real estate bubble. Actually 80 percent of the U.S. market is securitised because excess capital globally has been pushed into the U.S. mortgage market (Stock Market Investors). Before the financial crisis, the world was facing the greatest expansion of leveraged debt and greatest explosion in the prices of the equity markets. All kinds of financial markets such as NASDAQ 100, Platinum futures, oil prices or gold stocks, started demonstrating the power of trend-following crows on the up and down sides of the markets and in this way the four-hundred years of market history destructed and with the unwinding of leveraged debt, the prices and confidence of investors destroyed (Wakefield, 2008). The financial crisis penetrated into the world’s stock markets because stock market is one of the major activities in the corporate world. Dash & Mallick explain that the indices of the stock markets

Monday, July 22, 2019

Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883) Essay Example for Free

Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883) Essay In the Prologue section of Friedrich Nietzsche’s ‘Thus Spake Zarathustra’, he spoke of a thirty-year-old man named Zarathustra who goes into the wilderness where he stays for ten years taking pleasure in his solitude.   When he decides to be in contact with the people again and ‘go under’, Zarathustra starts to share what he has learned over the past ten years.   He tells about a Superman, saying that man is born to be between a beast and a Superman. Man should be able to overcome this state, yet the road is very dangerous.    He preaches that man should utterly focus on this life and not the life after death.   He should hold in contempt things like happiness, reason, virtue, justice, or pity.   As man is becoming more and more tame and domesticated, then the last man on earth will all be alike like a herd of animals.   They shall be afraid of danger and peril, which will lead to self-destruction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the Zarathustra Prologue, Nietzsche speaks about a crisis that is being shared by the existing humanity—the crisis of being contented with comfort alone; being as comfortable and contented as to resist the utilization of strong, positive goals in one’s existence.   Each section of ‘Thus Spake Zarathustra’ carries with it essential points to consider, especially the Prologue section and Parts 1-3.   What are these essential points?   How do they all blend together to come up with the whole thought or proclamation of Nietzsche?   In the end, we shall come up with the answers to these questions, together with the essential points that create Nietzsche’s preaching of nihilism.   In this world of materialism and nihilism (as Nietzsche declared), is God really dead? Main Body The Crisis of Existing Humanity   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the Prologue section of ‘Thus Spake Zarathustra,’ Nietzsche speaks about a crisis that lingers in all of humanity today.   Zarathustra speaks that saints are too proud and love only God and not men, as stated in the lines: â€Å"Now I love God: men, I do not love.   Man is a thing too imperfect for me.   Love to man would be fatal to me† (Nietzsche 21).   He also stated that acts of charity should go after acts of beseech: â€Å"If, however, thou wilt give unto them, give them no more than an alms, and let them also beg for it† (Nietzsche 21).   This points out that acts of charity are done for the sake of pride and self-worthiness.   When Zarathustra speaks that â€Å"God is dead† (Nietzsche 22), he meant that God does not exist in this world anymore, even on people whom we think should have made God more alive. Secondly, Zarathustra speaks that people have made a shame of themselves: â€Å"Ye have made your way from the worm to man, and much within you is still worm.   Once were ye apes, and even yet man is more of an ape than any of the apes† (Nietzsche 22).   He preaches that the way to go is to be the Superman, which Zarathustra speaks as â€Å"the meaning of the earth† (Nietzsche 22) and the â€Å"herald of the lightning, †¦ a heavy drop out of the cloud† (Nietzsche 25). People are in crisis because much of life is centered on life after death and not on the present life on earth.   Happiness, reason, virtue, justice, and pity appear to be useless and should not be centered on, since self-satisfaction of men is being slaughtered, while men cry to heaven for answers to satisfaction, which should only be found on earth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thirdly, Zarathustra speaks that â€Å"Man is a rope stretched between the animal and the Superman—a rope over an abyss† (Nietzsche 24).   There is crisis and peril in trying to go through the rope—the present state of man that should be defeated and prevailed over.   Man has succeeded in transforming itself from a beast to a man, yet there is another significant task for a man—to transform itself from a man to a Superman.   However, the people do not yet understand: â€Å"There they stand †¦ there they laugh: they understand me not†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Nietzsche 25). For this, Zarathustra starts to speak of the ‘last man’ because people are becoming too content and comfortable with their lives they do not see the need to have strong, positive goals anymore.   Zarathustra proclaims that, if this will not change, time will come when the trees and the soil will bear no trees; when man will not see a reason to long for and dream; and when man will no longer be capable of giving birth to a star (Nietzsche 26). This inability of the last man to create something that is beyond himself would make the earth smaller and smaller, and the last man becoming weaker and weaker†¦ becoming lazier as days go by.   If man is to surpass the crisis that is in the midst, then he should surpass the rope of being a man and learn how to become a Superman. The Principal Parts of the Last Man’s Soul   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Zarathustra, man is not made up of body and soul; rather, that he is composed only of the body that, on the other hand, is made up of the spirit and the ego, which common people call the ‘soul’ (Nietzsche 40-41).   Zarathustra preaches that the ego is—not said—but done (Nietzsche 41).   It is the ego that gives a sense of feeling, while it is the spirit, conversely, that discerns what is to be done considering the ego.    These two, the spirit and the ego, continuously attach to one another over one’s existence: â€Å"What the sense feeleth, what the spirit discerneth, hath never its end in itself† (Nietzsche 41).   Behind the senses of the ego and the spirit is the Self (or the body), which â€Å"seeketh with the eyes of the senses, it hearkeneth also with the ears of the spirit† (Nietzsche 41); yet it appears that the Self is the master of the senses of ego and spirit, as reflected in the following lines: The Self saith unto the ego: Feel pain!   And thereupon it suffereth, and thinketh how it may put an end thereto—and for that very purpose it is meant to think.   The Self saith unto the ego: Feel pleasure!   Thereupon it rejoiceth, and thinketh how it may ofttimes rejoice—and for that very purpose it is meant to think. (41)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      In relation to the crisis, this ordering of the principle parts of the last man’s soul leads one to think that the Self is really in the soul, which is not true, according to Zarathustra (since there is no soul).   The Self is in the body, and for those who say that Self is in the soul, they are called ‘despisers of the body’ who despise because of their esteem (Nietzsche 41).   Through the body, there is spirit; and through the spirit, there is worth and will.   The Self, however, should be made to do what it desires most—to be that which is beyond itself†¦ to be a Superman on earth!   To be a Superman needs a special kind of selfishness—the healthy and holy type of selfishness that â€Å"constrain[s] all things to flow towards you and into you, so that they shall flow back again out of your fountain as the gifts of your love† (Nietzsche 76). In this selfishness there is no lust or craving but true virtue that elevates the body and enraptures the spirit (Nietzsche 76).   This new virtue brings power and knowledge through what he calls the ‘Will to Power’.   This is what drives the powerful into wanting obedience and change.   Zarathustra calls it â€Å"the unexhausted, procreating life-will† (Nietzsche 108), and together with worth and will, this is also what the last man lacks nowadays.   People are unaware of the healthy and holy selfishness, which is why he cannot create beyond himself. The Way to Redemption   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Zarathustra, as a teacher, tries to correct the conflicting understanding of these notions by doing the following: first, by finding his own disciples and teaching them before sending them on their own to find their Will to Power and virtue, which should both be overflowing in order for them to preach or share it with others; and second, by preaching to the most uncommon men (i.e., hunchback, the cripples, the blind men) who live apart from the rest of the people. However, because man has turned his back against the Will to Power, Zarathustra claims that there is suffering on earth as penalty for the negligence: â€Å"Everything perisheth, therefore everything deserveth to perish† (Nietzsche 132).   Yet the past is past.   Even the Will to Power has no power to bring back time; thus, there is suffering.   But there is what is called ‘courage’ that slays giddiness, suffering, and death (Nietzsche 143).   As stated, â€Å"Courage, however, is the best slayer, courage which attacketh† (Nietzsche 143).   By possessing courage, man is on his way to redemption to find his Will to Power and his virtue, for the Self to find its worth and will in the spirit.   At that moment, he will have the power to create beyond himself—a being that even death, giddiness, and suffering is unable to tear down. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"[T]ruth is always on the side of the more difficult.† –Friedrich Nietzsche in his letter to his sister, 1865 (NietzscheKaufmann 29)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In Nietzsche’s ‘Thus Spake Zarathustra,’ he speaks about a crisis that is being shared by the existing humanity.   There is crisis because of the following essential points: first, the non-existence of God in this world; second, the centering on life after death; third, the suffering of self-satisfaction; fourth, the longing for contentment and comfort; fifth, the lack of strong, positive goals and courage; sixth and last, having a smaller world with weaker men.   With the Self as the master of the ego and the spirit, a man should not despise his body because of esteem, especially that it is the body that builds the spirit, which then builds both worth and will. Without the body, there is no spirit, worth, will, and the ego.   To be a Superman is to be selfish enough to gain in knowledge and in power, yet how can all be possible without virtue and Will to Power?   To have Will to Power in a changing and suffering world, however, there is a drastic need for courage.   This is the way to the redemption of mankind†¦ to have the courage in wiping away suffering and pain, which has been inflicted on mankind as penalty for its negligence.   Despite the past being irrevocable, man will no longer fall to self-destruction, as he has learned to go well beyond himself. Works Cited Nietzsche, Friedrich.   Thus Spake Zarathustra.   Translated by Thomas Common.   University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University, 1999. Nietzsche, Friedrich, and Walter Kaufmann.   The Portable Nietzsche.   New York, NY: Penguin Group, Inc., 1977.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Evaluating biological methods for treating wastewater

Evaluating biological methods for treating wastewater There are many biological methods for treating wastewater. Among them the most popular processes are suspended growth processes and the boifilm also known as attached growth . Both the above mentioned processes are used to treat wastewater by different mechanisms and variations in their principle of operation for removal of carbonaceous organic matter, nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorous) and production of biorenewable methane. Attached growth or fixed-film methods are biological treatment based. In these the microorganisms convert the organic substance in wastewater to air and cell tissues are attached to some inert medium. The inert media used in attached growth process is crushed trap rock, limestone granite, wood slats clinkers, , plastic tubes, hard coal materials and corrugated plastic section over which wastewater is distributed. Biological slime layer (i.e., zoogleal slime) develops on contact media as wastewater flows over it. Because of the concentration gradient, all the organic pollutants those are dissolved in wastewater are carried into the slime layer, results in organic oxidation. Removing organic pollutants is done by microorganisms which are present in biological slime film. Rotating biological contactors, Trickling filters, packed bed reactors are the examples for aerobic attached growth process. The examples of anaerobic attached growth are anaerobic packed and fluidized bed reactors. Suspended growth processes are the biological treatment processes in which the microorganisms convert the organic matter, nutrients in wastewater to gases and rotating devices in the liquid will keep the cell tissues in suspension cells tissues. Examples for aerobic suspended growth process treatment are municipal and industrial wastewater. Anaerobic suspended growth processes are used when there is a need to treat high organic concentration industrial wastewaters and organic sludges. Activated sludge process, aerated lagoons, aerobic digestion are the examples for aerobic suspended growth processes and anaerobic digestion and anaerobic contact are the examples for anaerobic suspended growth processes. The schematics of both the attached growth and suspended growth processes for biological treatment of wastewater are shown in Figure 1. The objective of this essay is to compare and contrast both the attached, suspended growth processes for biological treatment of wastewater in terms o f their microbial ecology and review their comparative advantages and disadvantages. In addition, the essay also elaborates and discusses how these processes can be adapted to (a) remove nutrients and (b) produce biorenewable methane from wastewater by emphasising the microbiological principles involved. 2. Comparison and Contrast of Microbial Ecology of Biological Wastewater Treatment The attached growth / Suspended Growth Processes The first basic difference between attached growth and fixed film systems is the relative motion of contact. In attached growth system media is at rest and the sewage flows over it where as in suspended system, sewage and contact media are in relative motion. In attached growth processes, a conservative microbial slime arrangement is considered. The waste water stream is applied on the air-renewable surface. This water stream has minerals and organic substrate. This substance is then metabolized by the Micro organisms in wastewater. This is done in order to increase their population by releasing some energy. In fact, it cannot be considered as an aerobic system, but a device to do aerobic treatment. facultative micro organisms are present in it so it can be considered facultative. They are Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, and Micrococcus. This kind of Aerobic bacteria, like Bacillus, is mostly seen in the upper, aerobic slime surfaces (McKinney 1962). In case when an anaerob ic zone or anoxic is created in thick slime layer, force anaerobe Desulfovibrio and sulfur-reducing bacteria are being removed from slime-medium interface (Rogovskaya M. F. Lazareva 1962). At this case the microbial slime system is know how to grow odours and possibly sloughing takes places because of the production of gases in these interior slimes. Fungi are nothing but aerobic microorganisms existing in the aerobic zone of the slime. These too fester the untreated substrate in wastewater. The effectiveness of fungus is important under relatively low pH situation or with unusual industrial effluents because fungus is useless to bacteria for their food under usual environmental conditions. Algae increasing on the surface of attached microbial slime are usually an unimportant element of the microorganisms population, incomplete to illuminated exteriors and they are clearly liberal to organic substances and high levels of carbon dioxide. Although algae add oxygen to the wastewater, they have been stimulated with responsibility for bed blockage and are considered to be difficult from an operational position (Hawkes 1963). The protozoa are the principally small animals with all shape from the Phytomastigophora to Suctoria are the controlling agents of bacterails population and they cant stable the waste. The free-swimming ciliates present at the slime surface, while the followed ciliates attendance is main in the lower regions of slime. Advanced animals like worms, snails and insect larvae nourish on the lower forms of microorganisms in slime system. They also exist in the higher aerobic areas; can help to keep the bacterial population in a state of high growth or swift food use. Early learning on attached growth populations was intended at the control of the nuisance organisms (filter flies) in dribbling filters by flooding, chlorination and the use of various pesticides. A complete description of the organisms found in close growth system has been presented by Cooke (1959) and the list of a range of organisms can be found from Wang et al. (2009). Attached enlargement processes microbial slime are short term preservation plans that should not act as effective reduction devices for S. typhosa, S. paratyphi, and Mycobacteria tuberculosis and for pathogenic protozoa, such as Entamoeba histolytica (Pierce 1978). For low organic loading, attached growth system does some nitrification since of the presence of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. However, for high organic loading, nitrification in a trickling filter or similar system may be absent or nominal (Shammas Wang 2009). In contrast to the attached growth process, the suspended growth process maintains the microorganisms responsible for treatment within the suspension in flocs. In this process, there are several microorganisms involved to treat wastewater. The suspended growth flocs contain bacterial cells, other microorganisms, inorganic and organic particles. The floc size is 1-1000 mm. Figure 2 illustrates the main microorganisms in the suspended growth microbial community. For the ATP analysis and dehydrogenase activity, the viable cells would account for 5-20% of the total cells. Some authors said that active fraction of bacteria in suspended growth flocs is only 1-3% of total bacteria (Hanel 1988). Suspended growth floc contains prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, which can be observed with regular phase-contrast microscopy. The major genera in the flocs are Zooglea, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Achromobacter, Corynebacterium, Comomonas, Brevibacterium, Acinetobacter, Bacillus spp., as well as filamentous microorganisms. The population of bacteria decrease as the floc size increase results in less oxygen level in the flocs (Hanel, 1988). Anoxic zones can happen within flocs, depending on the accessibility of oxygen attention in the tank and these zones will vanish when the oxygen concentration exceeds 4 mg/L. The internal regions in large flocs favor the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as methanogens or sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Thus, pendant growth system could be a suitable and fitting seed material for starting anaerobic reactors. Gram negative bacteria are main in suspended growth flocs. Hundreds of bacterial damage flourish in suspended growth but only small portion can be spoted by culture-based techniques. Bacteria oxidize the organic substance and change nutrient alteration and produce polymeric materials which aid in the flocculation of microbial biomass. In aerobic pendant enlargement process, the total bacterial counts in order of 108 CFU/mg of sludge. Suspended growth flocs also shelter autotrophic bacteria such as nitrifiers (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter), which convert ammonium to nitrate. Phototrophic bacteria such as the purple nonsulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillaceae), green sulfur bacteria are found at much lower levels and they play a minor role in carbonaceous organ ic matter removal in suspended growth processes. The suspended growth system does not usually favour the growth of fungi, although some fungal filaments are observed in suspended growth flocs. The predominant genera found in suspended growth system are Geotrichum, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria, which grow under specific conditions of low pH, toxicity, and nitrogen-deficient wastes. Protozoa helps in reducing carbonaceous matter, suspended solids, and numbers of bacteria, including pathogens (Curds Hawkes 1983). There is an inverse relationship between the number of protozoa in mixed liquor and the carbonaceous matter and suspended solids concentration in suspended growth effluents. Changes in the protozoan community reflect the food-to-microorganisms (F/M) ratio, nitrification, sludge age, or dissolved oxygen level in the aeration tank. The protozoan species composition of activated sludge indicates the carbonaceous matter removal efficiency of the proce ss. For example, the presence of large numbers of stalked ciliates and rotifers indicate a low carbonaceous matter. The ecological succession of microorganisms in suspended growth treatment system is illustrated in Figure 3. The ciliates (free, creeping, and stalked ciliates) are used for locomotion and for pushing food particles into the mouth, which are most abundant protozoa in suspended growth systems. Stalked, Creeping ciliates ciliates are attached to the flocs. These protozoa move via one or several flagella and take up food via the mouth or via absorption through their cell wall. The role of rotifers in suspended growth system is : They help to remove suspended bacteria, other small particles and contribute to the clarification of wastewater. They are also capable of ingesting Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater and thus serve as vectors for the transmission of this parasite. They contribute to floc formation by producing fecal pellets surrounded by mucus. The presence of rotifers at later stages of suspended growth system is because of the fact that these animals display a strong ciliary action that helps in feeding on reduced numbers of suspended bacteria. 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Attached Growth and Suspended Growth Processes of Biological Wastewater Treatment The advantages of attached growth processes are low maintenance, low energy requirements, and, overall, less technology involved. These assets making them fit for wastewater treatment for small communities, as well as individual homes. In comparison with suspended growth process the main advantages of attached growth processes is simpler operation, no bulking problems, and better recovery from shock loads (Metcalf Eddy 2003). An attached growth process is very effective for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal, nitrification, and denitrification. A disadvantage of attached growth processes are larger area, ineffective in cold weather, and create odor problems. An unprotected attached growth plant is vulnerable to below freezing weather and its recirculation restricted during cold weather. It is less effective in the treatment of higher organic waste. Raw wastewater must be provided to primary treatment to remove the larger solids and floating debris, because these solids can clog the treatment system. The comparative advantages and disadvantages of attached growth and suspended growth processes of wastewater treatment are illustrated in Table 1 and 2, respectively. 4. Nutrient Removal by Attached Growth and Suspended Growth Processes of Biological Wastewater Treatment Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) can be removed from incoming wastewater by biological means in both the attached growth and suspended growth processes. To remove the nitrogen from, we must have to do nitrification followed by de-nitrification. Phosphorous can be removed from wastewater through assimilation of phosphorous in microbial cell. Using nitrifying reactors nitrogen removal can be done in wastewater treatment using attached growth process based trickling. Experiments on nitrifying filters reveal that adsorption, desorption as well as de-nitrification can occur in attached growth bio-film to convert ammonium. At low organic loading the attached growth system does some nitrification because of the presence of bacteria like Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter but at higher organic loading nitrification in a trickling filter is absent or nominal. The three-stage attached growth process can be used for carbonaceous oxidation, nitrification, and de-nitrification. In case of suspended growth process, the flocs shelter autotrophic bacteria (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter), which change ammonium to nitrate. These species occur in clusters and they are in close contact in pending growth flocs and in biofilms. Fungi are also able to do nitrification and denitrification in suspended growth process. Compensation of a fungi-based dealing system are their capability to carry out nitrification in a single step, and they show great confrontation to inhibitory compounds. Molecular methods like aggressive PCR method showed that Nitrosomonas is (an ammonia oxidizing bacterium or AOB) 0.0033% of the total bacterial population and Nitrospira is (a nitrite oxidizing bacterium or NOB) 0.39% for NOB are present in suspended growth system. Features like ammonia/nitrite concentration, oxygen concentration, pH, temperature, BOD5/TKN ratio, and the attendance of toxic chemicals control nitrification kinetics in suspended growth system (Metcalf and Eddy 2003). The growth of a nitrifying population in suspended growth system depends on the surplus rate of the sludge and, consequently, on the BOD load, MLSS, and mean cell preservation time. The growth rate of nitrifiers is inferior in sewage and consequently a long sludge age is essential for the change of ammonia to nitrate. If the age of sludge is more than 4 days, then we be expecting nitrification. There are two processes by which nitrification can be attained in suspended growth reactors: (i) Combined carbon oxidation-nitrification (single-stage nitrification system): this process wokrs at high BOD5/TKN ratio and has a low population of nitrifiers. The oxygen requirement is exerted by heterotrophs (Figure 4). Nitrification must be followed by denitrification to remove nitrogen from wastewater. The rate of denitrification is independent of nitrate concentration but depends on the concentration of biomass and electron donor (e.g., methanol) in wastewater. The schematic of single sludge denitrification system is shown in Figure 6. Some more efficient methods based on suspended growth system to remove nitrogen in wastewater are Bardenpho Process (Figure 7), Sharon-Anammox Process and Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process. Biological phosphorous removal can be done with the basic steps of an anaerobic zone followed by an aerobic zone. During the aerobic stage phosphorus uptake takes and in anaerobic stage it is released subsequently (Manning and Irvine 1985; Meganck and Faup 1988; USEPA 1987). The phosphorus removal processes can be divided into mainstream and side stream processes. The alternating exposure to anaerobic conditions can be accomplished in the main biological treatment process. The most popular phosphorous removal systems based on suspended growth process like A/O Process, Bardenpho Process, and UCT Process are shown in Figure 8-10, respectively. 5. Production of Biorenewable Methane by Attached Growth and Suspended Growth Processes of Biological Wastewater Treatment Several attached growth and suspended growth processes like anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cell are generally employed to produce biorenewable methane (CH4). A series of microbiological processes will takes place in anaerobic digestion tank to convert organic compounds to methane, carbon dioxide, and reduce the volatile solids by 35 to 60%. Bacteria and methanogens are the responsible species in stabilization of wastewater sludges and for the treatment of industrial and urban wastewaters. Anaerobic digestion produces less amounts of sludge (3-20 times less than aerobic processes). Most of the energy derived from substrate breakdown is found in the final product, CH4. Only 5% is converted into biomass under anaerobic conditions and 50% of organic carbon is converted to biomass under aerobic conditions, whereas. This biogas (mainly CH4) produced from anaerobic digestion contains about 90% of the energy of calorific value of 9000 kcal/m3, and is burned on site to provide heat fo r digesters. Furthermore, synergistic interactions between the various groups of microorganisms are implicated in anaerobic digestion of wastes. The overall reaction can be written as Although some fungi and protozoa (anaerobic protozoa) found in anaerobic digesters, bacteria and methanogens are undoubtedly the dominant microorganisms. Large numbers of facultative anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus) are used in the hydrolysis and fermentation of organic compounds. Four types of microorganisms are involved in the transformation of complex materials into simple molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide. The process for methane production through anaerobic digestion is shown in Figure 11. 6. Conclusions The attached growth and suspended growth processes are most widely used for biological treatment of urban wastewater with respective and comparative advantages and disadvantages. The successful design and operation of attached growth and suspended growth processes for biological wastewater treatment require an understanding of microbial ecology of each process, types of microorganisms involved, the specific reactions that they perform, the environmental factors that affect their performance, their nutritional needs, and their reaction kinetics. In contrast to the microbial ecology of the suspended growth processes where the microorganisms responsible for treatment grow in suspension, the active bacteria in attached growth processes cling to some solid surface, natural or manmade, to perform the treatment. It can be inferred that the suspended growth processes are more preferable and advantageous for carbonaceous organic matter removal along with nutrient removal and production of bio renewable methane from urban wastewater in comparison to the attached growth processes.

Counselling and psychotherapy

Counselling and psychotherapy The objective of the final assessment was to video a short counselling session, and then to write a reflective essay critiquing the session in light of the particular counselling method selected. The logistics of the interview were made difficult by a recent move to a country area, where I did not have access to recording equipment, a DVD burner, or classmates willing to volunteer to act as the client. After a few technical difficulties, I was able to record a session using a webcam. It was then that I found that I was unable to burn the file to a disc, and after looking through the entire town for a business that would burn it to disc, finally transferred the file to a memory stick to be posted. Approach The chosen approach was person-centred counselling, where the client is at the centre of the method, unlike some other forms of counselling where technique is more pronounced. The approach, founded by Carl Rogers in the 1940s, has also been called non-directive which also emphasises that the counsellor is not giving advice and directions, but rather a format where the client can look at and consider their own feelings and options. Rogers also focused on the present rather than the past, as opposed to the Freudian approach, as well as a closer focus on feelings. In addition, Rogers used the term client rather that patient, to highlight the fact that the person being treated was taking responsibility for their own selves, rather than being reliant on the counsellor. In the person-centred approach, it is the client who ultimately makes all decisions, looks at alternatives, and takes responsibility and ownership of their own lives and choices. Dryden Mytton (1999) identify three important areas in person-centred counselling. The first is creating an environment in which the client can freely express their emotions. Approval and understanding from the counsellor towards the client is stressed. The outlook of the counsellor is also important, and the counsellor must trust the client to be able to cope with their problems, and undertake change and development. The counsellor is there to provide support and empathy, and unconditional positive regard. The counsellors own feelings and world-view must also be taken into account there must be congruence between the counsellor and client there need to be a genuineness of emotion, with the counsellor being really there in the moment of the session. The theory behind the person-centred approach puts forward that as long as there is unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding and congruence, all the core conditions for theraputic improvement or problem solving are met, and positive change will occur. As I counsellor using a person-centred approach, I would be trying to establish the core conditions, and be non-directive. Using this approach I do not try to cause anything to happen, or prevent any thing from happening, it is the client who does the real work. One of the better analogies Ive heard to describe this approach is it is the counsellors job to hold up a mirror for the client we need to comb our hair, and can do an okay job without the mirror, but unusually there are spots we cannot see without the assistance of the mirror, and maybe can do a better job if we can view our hair from a different angle. It may take some extra time, and we may have to hold the mirror just so to catch that awkward angle, but we can see so much more, hopefully in a more sympathetic and kinder light. Evaluation Trini agreed to not only record the session on her webcam, but to be the client as well. This was appreciated, especially as the only from of counselling that Trini is familiar with is either around the kitchen table with family, or with an ordained minister. When asked as to what subject she would like to discuss, that would not to substantial or in-depth, Trini requested that we discuss baby names, as it is only a few weeks until the birth of her next child, and a decision was still to be made about names. The setting was chosen to more due to the location of the webcam, as much as for privacy and fewer distractions from noise outside or children. There was not much choice in seating, but it was comfortable for Trini, who has reached quite an uncomfortable stage in her pregnancy is not able to sit for too long in any one position. In addition to the physical environment, I tried noticeably tune in to improve communication as described by Egan (2007; 71). The acronym SOLER is used by Egan to sum up these key skills: I tried to establish and keep eye contact as much as possible, although I found this harder when taking notes of names for Trini. I think I will need a bit of practice to get to the point where taking notes is not a distraction for both myself and the client. Throughout the session I tried to always facing Trini, maintain eye contact as much as possible, stay calm and relaxed, lean forwards without being too overt; more of an incline of the head rather than the entire body. Throughout the session I tried to encourage Trini to do most of the talking, ask as many open questions as possible, and pay attention to what the client way saying and how it was said, and listen without expressing criticism or judgment. The session was also very brief, partly due to it being an assessment rather than a normal session of fifty to ninety minutes, besides Trini being unable to sit comfortable for any length of time. After becoming used to longer practice sessions in class, if felt very strange to take such a short time. Because of time constraints, information about privacy and confidentiality was provided prior to the session. No sensitive matters were discussed, but it was still important for Trini to know how the recorded information would be treated and stored. I started the session with thanks and what would you like to talk about, which I prefer due to its simplicity and directness. Improvement for future The physical location of the session could definitely been improved, but there was little that could be changed due to technical restraints. Counsellor Challenges The line between talking too much and talking too little. Fight the need to jump in, to talk, to fill in the gaps sometimes silence is just fine. Burnout trying to do much, insufficient supervision and support Taking breaks, and not doing too much. Personal and professional development. Develop more effective techniques learn more about different problems. Learn more about specific problems effecting people living in remote or rural communities. In such a small community, being extremely vigilant concerning privacy and confidentiality, offering alternatives where needed. Personal and professional implications I have to have sufficient and specific training to address different kinds of issues that present in rural communities I dont want to try to treat problems outside my range of experience. I need to be able to listen to the client, and hear the changes that they want to make and their goals for therapy it is not about me. I need to be able to clearly communicate how I can help the client solve for themselves whatever problem or concern they have. I cannot make any promises or guarantees, but I can walk with the client as they go through the problem solving or decision making process. I need to continue to be non-judgmental of any clients life choices, behaviour, or the problems that they face. I need to be able to keep up-to-date with any changes in legislation and policy to be able to provide accurate information about client rights, confidentiality and informed consent, and appropriate duty of care towards my clients. I need to find a balance in my own work life, incorporating adequate supervision and continued education. If I am not able to deal with my own emotional issues, feelings and what is happening in my life, I will not be able to efficiently help others to cope with their own problems and emotional issues. References Bolton, R. (1986) People Skills: How to Assert Yourself, Listen to Others and Resolve Conflict. New York: Prentice-Hall. Brammer, L.M. and MacDonald, G. (1996) The Helping Relationship, Process and Skills 6th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Burnard, P. (1999) Counselling Skills for Health Professionals 3rd ed. Cheltenham: Stanley Thorne. Dryden, W. and Mytton, J. (1999) Four Approaches to Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Routledge. Egan, E. (2007) The Skilled Helper: A Problem Management and Opportunity Development Approach to Helping 8th ed. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Heaton, J.A. (1988) Building Basic Therapeutic Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The American Landscape of Literature Essay -- Literary Analysis, J.D S

The authors J.D Salinger and Joseph Heller have created novels that depict the American landscape based on spirit, culture, identity and values. American spirit is defined through rebellion in both novels. J.D Salinger captures rebellion through Holden’s refusal to go with the flow of society, and Joseph Heller shows rebellion using Yossarian to capture rebellion by his ideals that it is better to survive then fight in a war while most Americans uphold the belief that it is an honor to sacrifice oneself for one’s country. The essence of American culture is portrayed in the novels by the loose meaning of love in that era. Both authors define the loose meaning of love through the multiple lovers both Holden and Yossarian obtain, as well as the lack of seriousness used when stating they are in love. J.D Salinger defines the American identity of individualism through Holden’s desire to make his own decisions and choose his own fate. Joseph Heller uses Yossarian to de scribe the American identity of independence because of his want to be free of the war and all the hardships it brings. Finally the American values are defined by J.D Salinger and Joseph Heller through Holden’s concern for a person’s inner being, and Yossarian’s concern for self-preservation. Through the development of the characters Holden and Yossarian, the novels Catcher in the Rye and Catch-22 capture the meaning of being an American through spirit, culture, identity and value’s. The Catcher in the Rye and Catch-22 are novels which equally capture the essence of rebellion in the entirety of the American spirit. Salinger demonstrates the American spirit through teenage rebellion arising from the needs of truth and security in life. The protagonist, Holden, creates this... ...fluences him to impress his superiors with the sacrifice of his inferiors. Throughout both novels, the essence of being an American has portrayed by Holden and Yossarian through American spirit, culture, identity, and values. Both characters develop through the novels to capture the American landscape of literature. The American spirit is conveyed by the spirit of rebellion in Holden and Yossarian. American culture is portrayed by Holden and Yossarian through the loose term and meaning of love in the era around World War II. Both protagonists and antagonists in Catcher in the Rye and Catch-22 capture the American identity of individualism and independence, as well as their opposites. The American values are also shown by both protagonists and antagonists through the concern of the inner being of a person and the desire for self-preservation and their opposites.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Organic Biofumigants Essay -- Agriculture Biology Farming Farm Essays

Organic Biofumigants In recent years, production of many crops has become inhibited by taking several herbicides and pesticides off the market. If a producer wishes to be in organic production, this is even further inhibited by products useable to stay within organic guidelines. Biofumigants are basically any product used to control pests and competing weed species within a crop. This has become a hurdle for many producers due to labeling issues as well as the desire to keep the crops and their land feasible for â€Å"organic† production. There has been a great deal of research and discoveries pertaining to alternative methods of controlling the crop inhibitors (weeds and pests) in a more organic matter. Organic biofumigants have become one of the most feasible options for carrying out this daunting task. A big problem that today’s producers face is the control of nematode populations. Certain crop rotation systems may greatly increase the control a producer has over these problems. There are several crops that can be implemented into a rotation that can perform several tasks including: bio-fuel production and the control of pests and weeds organically. According to Klein et al. (2006), glucosinolates are natural products that when degraded in a soil can have profound impacts on the defense of insects and fungi invading a crop. Many of the crops that contain glucosinolates are in the Brassicaceae family. One of the most popular cover crops for the purpose of releasing glucosinolates is mustard and its different varieties. Mustard can be planted as a cover crop before several different crops. The crops that we found to benefit the most from this type of system were tap-root crops such as potatoes and sugar beets. ... ... Mohammad , Akhtar, Abdul Malik. "Roles of organic soil amendments and soil organisms in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: a review ." Bioresource Technology Volume 74. Issue 1.August 2000 Pages 35-47 . 03/27/07 5&_user=2532480&_coverDate=08%2F31% 2F2000&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000057783&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2532480&md5=0f8465d8d83ce62f9ccf3fa585e54c76>. Zasada, I.A. and Ferris, H.. "Nematode suppression with brassicaceous amendments: application." Department of Nematology, University of California 18 February 2003 3/27/07 . Wilson, D. â€Å"Lecture: Mutualism.† Given 28 March 2007. University of Wyoming Department of Agriculture.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Intelligence led policing Essay

The terrorist attacks of September 2001 had several governments taken aback of their incapacity to detect and prevent crimes of such magnitude. The United State’s Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense, for example, have been working extra hard to detect and thwart such mishaps now and in the future. In order to realize this, most aspects of national security have been reviewed by various governments around the world (Wisler and Onwudiwe, 2009). One of these aspects is intelligence improvement and use for both internal and international security. Of most importance is internal security, given the fact that crimes such as international terror are planned and carried out by deterrents that are already living among us. Because the police have the mandate to provide internal security, they require effective intelligence to enable them to collect and act on any information related to looming attacks and dangers. Apart from intelligence led policing, there are numerous other types of policing. However, the main ones are: knowledge-based policing, problem based policing and community policing. For any crime type to be bunged, the intelligence used by police ought to be based on all possibly available information and data, collected and thoroughly evaluated. Intelligence has been defined in multiple ways. For the sake of this discussion, we will settle on a single definition: it is collecting data and information precisely touching on crime, analyzing and drawing conclusions on it. Therefore, intelligence is not any kind of information but that which has been studied and quality conclusions made on it. Intelligence can then be used to inform any concerned decision maker of the several available choices. The security personnel of any department, either the police or the military, can then draw on the analyzed findings to carry out their duties of preventing and stopping crimes by strategizing and laying good plans on how to achieve their set objectives. Intelligence led policing is a structured method of collecting, analyzing and evaluating data and information related to crime. The analyzed information is then used to guide the institutions which enforce law in determining their actions. It was first used in the United Kingdom in 1990 and later received a huge acceptance in the United States after the 2001 terrorist attacks. The Kent police in the UK used this kind of policing on car stealing, home breaks and certain types of crimes which were then considered high priority. The world’s governments later decided to use this method alongside others to curb international crime especially terrorism and to react effectively to simpler crimes at the domestic front (Wisler and Onwudiwe, 2009). The problem based policing is broad in its coverage bearing its stand on the notion that other types of policing are not committed to solving the basic criminal acts. While it concentrates on crimes that need the attention of the police and that it handles other issues other than implementing crime prevention programs, is not able to cover all sorts of crimes. On the other hand Public policing usually focus on a single type of crime for example street gangs only. It is normally used when certain crimes occur and their area of operation is the streets. It is also effective in the sense that the time, when the required information is obtained and when action is taken on it, is relatively short. Its mainstay is to deter and disable unlawful trends. Criminals are also profiled to help in analysis. Finally, its approach involves the use of tour of duty personnel, strategic divisions and detectives.

Analysis Of Sonnets 64 And 73 Essay

William Shakespe atomic number 18 is one of the superior playwrights of entirely fourth dimension. It is also important, however, to remember and to cultivation his sonnets. The sonnets argon separated into two groups, 1-126 and 127-54. both told of them are applaud poems of some sort, whether intercommunicate to a young man or the infamous Dark Lady. It is important to equate and analyze the sonnets, and to down the similarities between them. The adjudicate of this essay is to compare sonnets 64 and 73, and give that although it is easy to eff to the induction that they are sorrowful in savor and minus in orientation, they are truly decreed and keep affirming. These two down been chosen because they are similar in this and former(a) respects. Before discussing the similarities, however, it is necessary to briefly list what each sonnet is approximately.Sonnet 64 is a cry against the inevit able-bodied stretch of all that wears down even the to a greater int ent or less firm powers that exist in the world. The loudtalker system stresses that even the most sturdy monuments are bound to the ravages of time When I have seen by Times vaporize hand de hardihoodd/ The rich, proud cost of outworn conceal age,/ When sometime lofty towers I see down-razd/ and brass eternal striver to mortal rage and so on. It is crystalize that the speaker finds time an adversary, capable of dilapidate any efforts to persevere. Time is also the enemy to the desire to be with a hit the sack one forever.In this sonnet, the speaker finds himself at the mercy of his opponent, without any means of veneering Time with any success. He some abandons the love that he nonions because he knows that it vacate alone ultimately fall victim to time. in that location is no difference between the love that is felt by the speaker and the some other durable things in the world, such as the kingdom of the shore, and the firm soil. still even these things will erod e everywhere time. The only option the speaker has is to mourn what he will one sidereal day lose.The seventy-third sonnet is also about the answer of the speaker to the fact that Time detracts from the heroism of man and his response to the things that make him feel loved. Shakespeare places with a discussion of the process by which the things that surround man first start to erode and fall as a result of the passing of time. The speaker is liken himself toautumn and the twilight of day. He finds himself lie on the ashes of his youth, and a victim to the release of time. He cannot sustain the love that he feels, and is consumed by both time and love, as they once sustained him. The speaker is parameter that the fate of man is to be consumed by the very things that are his life-blood love and time. In me thou seest the glowing of such enhance/ That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,/ As the deathbed whereupon it essential expire/ Consumed with that which it was nourished by.The similarities between these two poems are ostensible. Basically, they are both about the speakers sense of helplessness and loss in the face of the enactment of time. The theme of loss, and the recurrent theme of impotence when faced with passing time and its effects, is evident in both poems. However, these are not necessarily sad or negativist poems. The speaker does not submit to the change all over of time by saying that he will not be able to feel or love or even live anymore. He is not depressed to the point of being unable(p) to do anything.Rather, the speaker feels that man must(prenominal) continue to love, and to live, despite the fact that life will end, and love will last subside as time takes over the human spirit. Although Time will come and take my love away, the speaker is not saying that man must simply not love at all. He is saying that man must eventually give in to the effects of time, still that in the time that does exist for man, it is affir mable to love, and to sustain oneself with that love.These poems, which sound sad or even lacking in spirit, are actually affirmative of the desire toward love and life This thou perceivest, which makes my love more strong,/ to love that well, which thou must leave ere long. Both of these sonnets can be see as encouraging the reader to dig up the fact that love can be sweeter and more enduring if the individual realizes that time will eventually take that love away. It is even possible to claim that, because all love will end, man should democracy his love early, and live that love to the fullest extent possible. In this sense, each of these poems can be understood to be positive, and life affirming.At first reading, it is easy to come to the conclusion that the poems aresorrowful in tone and negative. However, after closer analysis, it is obvious that the speaker is ultimately celebrating life, and urging the embrace of all aspects of it, whether they result in suffering or plea sure. The tone is sorrowful when the speaker comes face to face with the inevitable, but the fact ashes that the inevitable outcome, which is loss, and the passage of time, is part of what makes the fervency of love, and the quality of life, so memorable and so pleasurable.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Racial Differences in the Corrections System Essay

According to nasty Star Project Executive Director, Phillip Jackson, in 2007 thither were 321 African American custody enrolled at Northwestern University (1.7 per centum of the bookman body) but four measure that payoff 1,207- impris wholenessd at Western Illinois punitory Center (60 portion of the prison house creation) (Walker, Spohn & Delone, 2012). This is precisely one example of the astounding sh be of adolescent saturnine custody presently serving jail prison term as opposed to pursuing a college education. Something essential be vit tout ensembley wrong with our guilty arbitrator organisation, since it eachows these staggering total to withhold truth. general the total parting of girlish African American males is al intimately louvre propagation much than that of their young ashen or Hispanic male counterparts. I find this statistic very disturbing and chose to search the wherefore and how this is occurring.There be galore(postnominal) an(prenominal) possible reasons much(prenominal) as circumscribed access to public wellness clinics, racial profiling, un clear discriminatory organizations, racial differences in judge, rectitudeyers, and law delineaters, poerty, and p arntal upbringing to touch a few. How do these young workforce get sucked into a life of offence, do they postulate an alternative or a role model to seek rede form? The numbers do non lie and in that location must be sound reasons behind them. In this topic I pass on research and establish the various reasons why young African American males argon grossly over be in the vile umpire and compensateions facilities.While the overall fresh population is higher(prenominal) than the African American population, 10.4 percent of African American custody between the ages of 25-29 can expect to blow over time in jail, compared with 2.4 percent of Hispanics and 1.2 percent of unobjectionable men. Throughout this paper I depart discuss non barely the staggering numbers but as well as the abstract thought behind them and possible solutions or at the very least a outset point to help lay out the b another(prenominal) at hand. People of twine are disproportionately involved in the guilty rightness brass, as abuse dupes, offenders, soulfulnesss arrested, and persons in prison (Walker, Spohn & Delone, 2012).It Starts at a Young AgeThere is more(prenominal) than(prenominal) than one reason behind the racial imbalance in the whitlow arbitrator ashes. Areas that allow been evaluated are parental involvement, friend groups, neighborhoods, the individual, and racial discrimination at all directs. It appears that the problem is present in the novel nicety system as well, something is not working right if these children are not receiving the rehabilitation and or help they hire to lead a non- woeful life. Redding & Arigo, 2005 subject this almost the number of African American young offenders, comprom ising alone 15% of the new-fangled populationand 57% of the recents in state prisons I decided to discuss juveniles because I found it interesting that they likewise recreateed a boastfully number of the criminal offenders in the juvenile umpire system in a very comparable way that the 25-28 year old African American males do.Several avenues I researched reason that African Americans catch a harder time accessing health facilities such as metal health clinics, where many of the common mental health disorders that criminal offenders suffer from can be treated. As many as 70 percent of youth in the system are change with a mental disorder, and one in five suffer from a mental illness so repellent as to impair their ability to go away as a young person and grow into a responsible enceinte (Hammond, 2007). It seems to me that if we can stop the current plow at a young age, why wouldnt we?Poverty and Single enkindle HomesWalker, Spohn & Delone state that 9.4 % of white Ame ricans live in destitution compared to a shocking 25.8% of African Americans that live in poorness. There are thousands of studies that cogitate distress and poor neighborhoods with criminal activity, both victim and criminal. With a crap of the African American population living at leanness level it is not surprising that they besides retain such a large portion of the inmate population. Regardless of whether scantiness is a cause or an effect, however, the conditions associated with privation can work against the development of gentleman capitalthat is the ability of individuals to remain rosy-cheeked and develop the skills, abilities, endureledge, and habits necessary to fully go in in the labor force (Nilsen, 2007).If concourse are not allowed the opportunity to get across their full potential lots measure a life of crime if the only way to survive. The United States Government recognizes that in that location is a nexus yet the problem still exists. Yes in t hat respect are federally funded programs such as Medicaid, Food Stamps, and atypical Assistance for Needy Families, but the poverty level is still alarmingly high. The most telling incident round poverty in theUnited States is how thoroughly it is unattended (Royce, 2009).While there is a link between poverty and crime, there is also a link between angiotensin-converting enzyme parent homes or absentee parent homes and crime as well. The percentage of African American families drive by a single parent, usually the mother, is astounding, 50% of all somber households with children under age 18 are headed by stern women (Bush, 2004). Often times the majority of these families live at or beneath the poverty level, star(p) to a higher chance of violence and criminal activity. The evidence higher up begins to show the cogitate behind why African Americans thrust the highest racial population in prisons. In addition they often are judged harder and execute agelong sentence s in jail than there non-black counterparts. While racial profiling seems to be a likely come I found various accounts of whether or not it is a adopt cause of the higher numbers of African American men in prison, the problem seems to lie kick upstairs up the judicial system.Young African American and Hispanic males, in other words, award greater odds of immurement than young white males primarily because the believe more serious crimes and have more serious prior criminal records (Walker, Spohn & Delone, 2012). charge though they whitethorn collapse more serious crimes, when sentenced next to a non-minority for the resembling crime, their sentences are often thirster. Clifford Levy 1996 of the unfermented York beats states, black and Hispanic bulk sentenced for minor felonies or misdemeanors in impudently York were treated more harshly than whites in similar circumstances. His statements are based on a study released by the Pataki administration. high Up the Judicial System sepa appreciate areas that may lead to the disproportioned numbers in the jails are judge, juries, and lawyers. Next I purpose to discuss the differences in race among the decide, juries, lawyers, and law makers. The instrument panel is the heart of the criminal justice system (Cole, 2000). How can racially fair rulings be hand out if the jury consists of mostly non-minorities? Racially biased judgments could be a cause of the difference in numbers in our criminal justice system. An analysis of Jefferson Parish, La., by the Louisiana great(p) Assistance Center found that from 1999 to 2007, blacks were afflicted from juries at more than three times the rate of whites (Dewan, 2010). Inadditional differences amongst the jurors, judges and lawyers are mostly white males. feature African American and Hispanic facsimile among lawyers was 7% in 1998 There are fewer active African American federal appellate judges now than when Jimmy Carter was President (The coaction the, n.d.).The frivol away does not stop here, the racial variety continues up the ladder to sexual telling, the Senate, and the augury. The article Do Your Lawmakers Represent all Americans, or is it Time to Change Congress states, The U.S. population includes 12 percent African Americans, 9 percent Hispanics, and 3 percent Asian/ peace-loving Islanders and other groups. Congress, however, is 87 percent white 85 percent in the House and 96 percent in the Senate. If fact black members of the three government bodies supra are often times questioned about decisions and their backing status far more than their non-minority counterparts. These numbers back the idea that African Americans face a discriminatory criminal justice system that starts at the top. alas racial biased is still something that is intrinsic in most Americans and until the minorities are jolly represented in the government and judicial system, racial inequality within these entities give still exist.ComparisonAs mentioned previously African American males face longer prison sentences due to the fact that they commit more serious crimes and have longer criminal records, in general, than white Americans. The racial differences also extend to length of time served, higher rate of trusts and prison sentences. The discipline incarceration rate for whites is 412 per 100,000 residents, compared to 2,290 for African Americans and 742 for Hispanics (Mauer & King, 2007). internment rates are directly affected by the sentencing process. As one world power expect African Americans and Hispanics face a harsher time during the sentencing process than white Americans.Of the estimates of the direct effect of race on sentencing at the state level, 43.2% indicated harsher sentences for blacks, and over a quarter (27.6%) of the estimates on the direct impact of ethnicity registered harsher sentences for Latinos (Kansal, 2005). Per the U.S. Sentencing delegatings sourcebook of Federal Sentencing Statisti cs in 2007 the conviction ratio broken strike down by race is as follows whites 28.8%, blacks 24.4%, and Hispanics 43%. Overall the percentage of African American males and Hispanics males that entrust servetime in prison compared to white males is significantly higher.Structural dissimilitudeBased on the information supra I believe it is apparent that there is severe morphological inequality starting at the top with the government down through to the jurors. How can racial candid laws be passed if the government writing them is do up the racial majority. It is impossible to authentically understand what it is like to be a minority without living it. Some may say they understand and can make unbiased decisions, but the fact stiff that without living the lifestyle this is impossible to rightfully accomplish, which is why African Americans and Hispanics must mesh to increase their numbers within the governing body bodies.Next the judicial system of necessity to be addressed they face the equal(p) racial disparities that the government does. White judges and juries are handing out the majority of the convictions and sentences, including those handed out to the minorities. It is evidenced that African Americans face harsher sentences and longer jail times than their white counterparts. Efforts should be made to reinstate judicial discretion into the sentencing process to permit judges to craft sentences that accurately reflect the supercharged conduct and circumstances of the offense and suspect (Mauer & King, 2007). Efforts need to be made to correct the imbalances that the United States criminal justice system currently faces.ConclusionTo be sure, criminalizing young Black males and warehousing them in jails and prisons leave alone further exacerbate the problems of racial subordination and ossify the economic and social inequities structuring their fooling lives (Hill & Lee, 2010). The evidence does not lie there are sound reasons why African Am erican males between the age of 25-29 have more of their population behind bars. It often times starts at home and whole kit it all the way up to the top. The same problem has been recognized at the juvenile level. African American juvenile offenders represent with a higher number of their population in the criminal justice system. I found some interesting studies that link mental illness to criminal activity. galore(postnominal) families living in poverty have limited access to mental health clinics, thus a possible source of aggression and criminal behavior is going untreated.Poverty levels are still inordinately high and it has been proven that living ator below the poverty level and in rough neighborhoods, leads to criminal activity. As many as 50% of the African American families at or below the poverty level are run by a single parent, leading to even more family strain and stress. another(prenominal) area that is giving rise to the above mentioned numbers is the fact that the criminal justice system, itself, has very few minority members. The House, Senate, and Congress also are compromised of mostly white. The numbers do not correlated with the overall populations in the United States. White judges, lawmakers, juries, and lawyers settle over 90% of the judicially system and government bodies.It is easier to understand why minorities are dealt harsher sentences, serve longer jail times, are convicted at a higher rate and hold a larger percentage in the prison system. With the current system in place and the obvious structural inequality within the criminal justice system, I fear that the numbers will not change. Action must be taken to incorporate the minorities into these governing bodies. The relinquish needs to be addressed at the juvenile level, by helping these dissipated teens their numbers may start to moderate at all age levels. The reasoning behind the numbers has been laid out, is know by most, and yet is still a problem. It is time to make a change, if not 1 in every black male born today will see the inside of a prison cell and this is not acceptable.ReferencesBush, L. (2004). How black mothers accede in the development of manhood and masculinity What do we know about black mothers and their sons? The Journal of Negro Education, 73(4), 381-391. Retrieved from http// Cole, D. (1999). No equal justice Race and class in the American criminal justice system. New York New. The collaboration the legal profession. (n.d.). Retrieved from http// Dewan, S. (2010, June 1). Study finds blacks blocked from grey juries. The New York Times. Retrieved from http// Still Being Blocked from Juries in the South, Study Finds&st=cse Do your lawmakers represent all americans, or is it time to change congress?. (n.d.).